Document Type : SPECIAL ISSUE


Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Environment, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand



BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The increasing population and urban growth have led to a higher demand for water in various sectors, resulting in a significant amount of wastewater. Constructed wetlands mimic natural wetlands, using the interaction between plants, soil, and microorganisms to treat wastewater efficiently. This study assesses the diversity, species composition, and distribution of benthic organisms in a community wastewater-filter grass system and explores the relationship between water quality and benthos.
METHODS: Water samples were collected from plant plots between December 2021 and March 2022. On-site measurements included temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity, and pH, whereas laboratory analysis encompassed the biochemical oxygen demand, ammonia, nitrate, total phosphorus, orthophosphate, and suspended solids. Soil samples were taken before and during planting at 2-week intervals, evaluating organic matter, pH, electrical conductivity, salinity, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and plant growth indicators. Benthos sampling involved polyvinyl chloride pipe cores at a depth of 5 cm from the soil surface. Statistical tests were performed to analyze the water quality data.
FINDINGS: The study observed a decrease in Chironomid abundance in both constructed wetland systems, indicating their effectiveness in treating wastewater. A comparison of system types revealed that the 5-day detention–2-day dry release system exhibited higher Chironomid abundance than the continuous flow system, and the biological oxygen demand maximum decreasing rate was 95%. The ammonia and nitrate maximum decreasing rates were 97% and 94%, respectively, indicating greater wastewater-treatment efficiency. The study also identified diverse benthic organisms, particularly chironomids, as bioindicators for assessing wastewater conditions.
CONCLUSION: The continuous flow system and the 5-day detention–2-day dry release system of constructed wetlands can reduce the organic compounds and increase the oxygen levels in the plant plots. The interaction among plants, soil, and microorganisms is critical in wastewater treatment. In addition, the study highlighted the diversity and abundance of benthic organisms, particularly chironomids, which were more prominent in the continuous flow system. Consequently, the 5-day detention–2-day dry release system was more efficient in treating wastewater than the continuous flow system.

Graphical Abstract

Using benthos a bioindicator to assess the efficiency constructed wetland community wastewater treatment system


  • Density of Family Chironomidae in Wetland that has highgest relationship with NH3;
  • 5-day detention 2-day dry release system better capacity than continuous flow system to reduce to organic compounds;
  • Increasing of Family Chironomidae in both constructed wetland systems that showed wastewater treatment system is effective to treating wastewater.


Main Subjects


©2023 The author(s). This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit:


GJESM Publisher remains neutral concerning jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.


Google Scholar Scopus Web of Science PlumX Metrics Altmetrics Mendeley |


GJESM Publisher

Letters to Editor

GJESM Journal welcomes letters to the editor for the post-publication discussions and corrections which allows debate post publication on its site, through the Letters to Editor. Letters pertaining to manuscript published in GJESM should be sent to the editorial office of GJESM within three months of either online publication or before printed publication, except for critiques of original research. Following points are to be considering before sending the letters (comments) to the editor.

[1] Letters that include statements of statistics, facts, research, or theories should include appropriate references, although more than three are discouraged.
[2] Letters that are personal attacks on an author rather than thoughtful criticism of the author’s ideas will not be considered for publication.
[3] Letters can be no more than 300 words in length.
[4] Letter writers should include a statement at the beginning of the letter stating that it is being submitted either for publication or not.
[5] Anonymous letters will not be considered.
[6] Letter writers must include their city and state of residence or work.
[7] Letters will be edited for clarity and length.