Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kermanshah University of Technology, Kermanshah, Iran



BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Industrial wastewater usually contains metal ions which are hazardous to human and aquatic organisms. Nowadays, the application of inexpensive biomaterials in adsorptive removal of metal ions, such as plant biomass, has been widely considered. In this study, the efficiency of Eucalyptus globulus fruit biomass for biological adsorption of cadmium ions from aquatic environments has been evaluated.
METHODS: After drying, the collected biosorbent was ground and powdered. The dried biomass, after screening with particle size of less than 45 micrometers, was used in all experiments. The effects of operating factors, such as biosorbent to cadmium ratio, pH value of the solution and residence time of biomass and metal, on the amount of analyte adsorption were evaluated by response surface methodology. The optimum conditions for maximum metal uptake by Eucalyptus globulus fruit biomass were also evaluated using the Box-Behnken Design model. Kinetic studies were statistically described to investigate the metal adsorption process.
FINDINGS: Validation experiments showed the accuracy of the model proposed for determining the optimum conditions for the cadmium biosorption process. Based on the experimental data, the values of coefficient of determination, adjusted coefficient and predicted coefficient used in the model were determined as 0.9948, 0.9855 and 0.9245, respectively. Using the model, the maximum cadmium ion adsorption by biomass was obtained at 93.65 percent, biosorbent-to-metal ratio of 9:1, pH value of 6, and contact time of 80 minutes.
CONCLUSION: In the present study, the Eucalyptus globulus fruit biomass, under optimal operating conditions, proved to be an efficient sorbent for cadmium uptake from aqueous environments. The results from the experimental data of the adsorption studies were consistent with pseudo-second-order kinetics (maximum capacity of 128.2 milligram per gram), indicating that the chemical adsorption of cadmium on the used biomass occurring in monolayers.

Graphical Abstract

Efficient biosorption of cadmium by Eucalyptus globulus fruit biomass using process parameters optimization


  • The novel biomass derived from globulus fruit has considerable potential for adsorptive cadmium removal from aquatic environments;
  • The RSM approach and the BBD model were successfully applied to achieve optimum conditions for analyte uptake by EFB;
  • The operational factors investigated based on DOE and affecting the cadmium biosorption process were optimized;
  • The cadmium uptake by EFB was fitted with the PSO kinetic model, indicating that it was adsorbed by the EFB in monolayers due to its chemical affinity.


Main Subjects


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