1 Environmental Studies Graduate Program, Universitas Terbuka, Jl, Pamulang Tangerang Selatan, Indonesia

2 Department of Aquatic Resources Management, Faculty of Fishery and Marine Science, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor, Indonesia

3 Research Center for Oceanography, National Research and Innovation Agency Republic of Indonesia, BRIN Kawasan Jakarta Ancol, Jl, Jakarta, Indonesia


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Heavy metals are categorized as hazardous pollutants due to their incapability in decomposing and undergoing bioaccumulation and biomagnification. Heavy metal pollution is a global issue, particularly in emerging nations such as Indonesia. In this case, sediments contribute to pollution dispersion because they can transport, mobilize, and redistribute toxic compounds. The Cisadane river is one of 15 watersheds in Indonesia with the highest restoration priority. Therefore, it is essential to conduct study on the sediment quality of this river. This investigation aimed to evaluate the levels of cadmium, chromium, and lead in the sediments to assess the conditions of the Cisadane River.
METHODS: At eight stations (representing the midstream and downstream region), surface sediment samples were collected using a van Veen sediment grab based on the hypothesis that heavy metal pollution originated from land-based activities and migrated down river estuaries. The Thermo Scientific iCAP 7400 was utilized to assess heavy metals (cadmium, chromium, and lead) by adopting prior research methodologies and method guidelines.
FINDINGS: Except for lead, which surpassed the interim sediment quality standard, the levels of heavy metals observed in the midstream and downstream sections of the Cisadane River were found to be well below the guideline level. In this case, lead was the metal with the highest concentration in the sediments of the Cisadane River, followed by chromium and cadmium. The enrichment of heavy metals in river sediments was most likely caused by soil leaching, municipal and industrial sewage, as well as land waste disposal. After the landfill area, there were two areas with the highest concentration. Therefore, this investigation indicated the existence of landfills as point sources of heavy metals. Regarding specifics, two sites following the landfill constitute the apex of heavy metal amplification.
CONCLUSION:  This analysis shows that the sediment's cadmium, chromium, and lead contents are below the standards' threshold and safe for the habitat. Cadmium, chromium and lead exceed sediment quality requirements in sample sites after landfills, assumed to be due to leachate discharge and landfill activities. This study further also reveals that landfills are point sources of heavy metals. In this case, the heavy metals are two to four times higher in one kilometer from the landfill's leachate discharge. Therefore, the Enforcement of the Indonesia Waste Law Number 18 Year 2008 would have replaced unsanitary dumping including implementation of physicochemical, biological, and combination remediation techniques, with a vastly superior waste management system.

Graphical Abstract

Heavy metals concentration in the sediment of the aquatic environment caused by the leachate discharge from a landfill


  • Cd, Cr, and Pb metals in the sediment of the Cisadane River are still below the guideline threshold, whereas Cd and Pb surpass their natural levels in the top continental crust;
  • The concentration of Cd, Cr, and Pb exceeds the sediment quality guidelines at the sampling sites following landfills, which is attributed to leachate discharge and landfill activities;
  • Based on the findings of this analysis, landfills are potential as a point source of hazardous heavy metals;
  • Cd-Cr and Cr-Pb correlations were moderately positive, whereas the correlation between Cr-Pb was significantly positive.


Main Subjects


©2023 The author(s). This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit:


GJESM Publisher remains neutral concerning jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affliations.


Google Scholar Scopus Web of Science PlumX Metrics Altmetrics Mendeley |


GJESM Publisher

Letters to Editor

GJESM Journal welcomes letters to the editor for the post-publication discussions and corrections which allows debate post publication on its site, through the Letters to Editor. Letters pertaining to manuscript published in GJESM should be sent to the editorial office of GJESM within three months of either online publication or before printed publication, except for critiques of original research. Following points are to be considering before sending the letters (comments) to the editor.

[1] Letters that include statements of statistics, facts, research, or theories should include appropriate references, although more than three are discouraged.
[2] Letters that are personal attacks on an author rather than thoughtful criticism of the author’s ideas will not be considered for publication.
[3] Letters can be no more than 300 words in length.
[4] Letter writers should include a statement at the beginning of the letter stating that it is being submitted either for publication or not.
[5] Anonymous letters will not be considered.
[6] Letter writers must include their city and state of residence or work.
[7] Letters will be edited for clarity and length.