Document Type : ORIGINAL RESEARCH PAPER

Authors

1 Ankara University, Engineering Faculty, Chemical Engineering Department, 06100 Tandoğan, Ankara, Turkey

2 Gazi University, Sea and Aquatic Sciences Application and Research Center, 06570 Maltepe, Ankara, Turkey

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It is important to develop dynamic water quality index software that reflected accurately the state of enclosed coastal water quality. This study explored water quality index model software including the third-order and daily based discrete-time transfer function in Simulink-MATLAB environment to predict the past and future water quality index changes versus discrete-time by using the data measured approximately once a month.
METHODS: A modelling software for daily based discrete-time water quality index was developed to evaluate the pollution level in enclosed coastal water bodies affected by marinas. Measurements were done at three different stations near marina entrances in Bucak, Kaş, and Fethiye Bays located at the south western Mediterranean coast of Turkey. The computed water quality index values and the sampled indicators data defined in terms of the deviation variables were used to identify the proposed third-order transfer function parameters. The proposed software is applicable for past and future estimates, where inputs may include some missing measurements. The input data are interpolated to estimate daily based inputs by using the developed model in the Simulink-MATLAB environment. For model verifications, monthly measured water quality parameters are used.
FINDINGS: The software including the daily based discrete-time transfer function and the input sources was successfully applied to predict past and future water quality index changes with 4.2 percent, 4.3 percent, and 7.1 percent of the absolute maximum errors respectively in Fethiye, Kaş, and Bucak stations. In three stations studied, seasonal comparison of the enclosed coastal water quality showed that the quality in winter (72±2) is lower than the one (82±8) in other seasons. The past and future daily predictions of water quality index changes versus discrete-time were realized successfully by using the proposed software and the data measured approximately once a month.
CONCLUSION: By determining similar transfer functions and selecting some adequate indicators, the software proposed can be adapted for quality assessment in other enclosed water bodies.

==========================================================================================
COPYRIGHTS
©2021 The author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, as long as the original authors and source are cited. No permission is required from the authors or the publishers.
==========================================================================================
 

Graphical Abstract

Dıscrete-tıme dynamıc water qualıty ındex model ın coastal water

Highlights

  • Unweight harmonic square mean water quality index based on minimum norm was significantly associated with enclosed coastal water bodies affected by marinas;
  • A daily-based discrete-time transfer function was used successfully to simulate the dynamic behaviour of enclosed coastal waters polluted by marinas;
  • The proposed water quality index estimation software is applicable for past and future estimates, where inputs may include some missing measurements. 

Keywords

Main Subjects

Aydinol, F.I.T; Kanat, G.; Bayhan, H., (2012). Sea water quality assessment of Prince Islands’ Beaches in İstanbul. Environ. Monit. Assess., 184:149-160 (12 pages).

Azis, P.A.; Mancera-Pineda, J.E.; Gavio, B. (2018). Rapid assesment of coastal water quality for recreational purposes: Methodological proposal. Ocean. Coastal Manage., 151: 118-126 (9 pages).

Bierman, G.J., (1976). Measurement updating using the U-D factorization. Automatica, 12 (4), 375-382 (8 pages).

Boyacioglu, H., (2007). Development of a water quality index based on a European classification scheme. Water S.A., 33(1): 101–106 (6 pages).

Campos, C.J.A.; Kershaw, S.R.; Lee, R.J., (2013). Environmental Influences on Faecal Indicator Organisms in coastal waters and their accumulation in bivalve shellfish. Estuaries and Coasts. 36: 838-853(16 pages).

Capella, J.V.; Bonastre, A.; Ors, R.; Peris, M., (2013). In line river monitoring of nitrate concentration by means of a Wireless Sensor Network with energy harvesting. Sens. Actuators, B, 177: 419-427 (9 pages).

Cebe, K.; Balas, L., (2016). Water quality modelling in Kaş Bay. Appl. Math. Model. 40: 1887-1913 (27 pages).

Chapra, S.C., (2012). Applied numerical methods with MATLAB for engineers and scientists. Matrix inverse and condition, Splines and Piecewise Interpolation. McGraw Hill, New York, 268-283: 429-461 (33 pages).

Cude, C.G., (2001). Oregon water quality index a tool for evaluating water quality management effectiveness. J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc., 37(1): 125-137 (13 pages).

Farrugia, H.; Deidun, A.; Gauci, A.; Drago, A., (2016). Defining the trophic status of Maltese (Central Mediterranean) coastal waters through the computation of water quality indices based on satellite data. J. Coastal Res., 75 (SI): 632-636 (5 pages).

Hapoğlu,H.; Camcıoğlu, Ş.; Özyurt, B.; Yıldırım, P.; Yılmaz, N.; Balas, L.,(2018). Enclosed coastal waters quality monitoring with bacterial indicator phase-plane analysis. J. Fac. Eng. Archit. Gaz., 33(4): 1419-1431 (13 pages).

He, Y.; He, Y.; Sen, B.; Li, H.; Li, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, J.; Jiang, S. C.; Wang, G.,(2019). Storm runoff differentially influences the nutrient concentrations and Microbial contamination at two distinct beaches in northern China. Sci. Total Environ., 663: 400–407 (8 pages).

Jha, D. K.; Devi, M. P.; Vidyalakshmi, R.; Brindha, B.; Vinithkumar, N. V.; Kirubagaran, R., (2015). Water quality assessment using water quality index and geographical information system methods in the coastal waters of Andaman Sea. India. Mar. Pollut. Bull., 100 (1): 555-561 (7 pages).

Karakaya, N.; Evrendilek, F., (2010). Water quality time series of Big Melen stream (Turkey): its decomposition analysis and comparison to upstream. Environ. Monit. Assess., 165(1-4): 125–136 (12 pages).

Katyal, D., (2011). Water quality indices used for surface water vulnerability assessment. J. Environ. Sci., 2 (1): 154-173 (20 pages).

Khatoon, H.; Haris, N.; Banerjee, S.; Rahman, N.A.; Begun, H.; Mian, S.; Abol-Munafi, A.B.; Endut, A., (2017), Effects of different salinities on the growth and proximate composition of Dunaliella sp. Isolated from South China Sea at different growth phases. Process. Saf. Environ. Protct., 112: 280-287 (8 pages).

Liou, S.M.; Lo, S.L.; Wang, S.H., (2004). A generalized water quality index for Taiwan. Environ. Monit. Assess., 96: 35–52 (18 pages).

Liu, X.; Sen, B.; Zhao, Y.; Bai, M.; He, Y.; Xie, Y.; Li, J.; Wang, G., (2019). Gradients of three coastal environments off the South China Sea and their impacts on the dynamics of heterotrophic microbial communities. Sci. Total Environ., 659: 499–506 (8 pages).

Lohe, R.N.; Tyagi, B.; Singh, V.; Tyagi, P.; Khanna, D.R.; Bhutiani, R., (2015). A comparative study for air pollution tolerance index of some terrestrial plant species. Global J. Environ. Sci. Manage., 1(4): 315-324 (10 pages).

Loucks, D.P.; Jia, H., (2012). Managing water for life. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 6(2): 255-264 (10 pages).

Lumb, A.; Sharma, T.C.; Bibeault, J. F. (2011). A review of genesis and evolution of water quality index (WQI) and some future directions. Water Qual. Exposure Health, 3: 11-24 (14 pages).

Nguyen, N.T.T.; Sevando, M., (2019). Assessing Coastal Water Quality through an Overall Index. Pol. J. Environ. Stud., 28 (4):2321-2330 (10 pages).

Pavlidou, A.; Simboura, N.; Rousselaki, E.; Tsapakis, M.; Pagou, K.; Drakopoulou,  P.; Assimakopoulou,  G.; Kontoyiannis, H.;  Panayotidis, P., (2015). Methods of eutrophication assessment in the context of the water Framework directive: Examples from the Eastern Mediterranean coastal areas. Cont. Shelf Res., 108: 156–168 (13 pages).

Pesce, S. F.; Wunderlin, D.A., (2000). Use of water quality indices to verify the impact of Cordoba city (Argentina) on Suquia River. Water Res., 34(11): 2915-2926 (12 pages).

Pham Phu, S.T.; Hoang, M.G.; Fujiwara, T., (2018). Analyzing solid waste management practices for the hotel industry. Global J. Environ. Sci. Manage., 4(1): 19-30 (12 pages).

Rangetti, I.; Dzwairo, B.; Barratt, G. J.; Otieno, F.A.O., (2015). Ecosystem-specific water quality indices. Afr. J. Aquat. Sci., 40(3): 227–234 (8 pages).

Rees, G.; Pond, K.; Johal, K.; Pedley, S.; Rickards, A., (1998). Microbiological analysis of selected coastal bathing waters in the U.K., Greece, Italy and Spain. Water Res. 32(8): 2335-2340 (6 pages).

Regulation for the Surface Water Quality, (2016), Rebulic of Turkey Ministry of Forest and Water Management. Official Gazette date: August 10, 2016. No: 2979.

Regulation for the Water Pollution Control, (2004). Rebulic of Turkey Ministry of Environment and Forestry.Official Gazette date: December 31, 2004. No: 25687.

Sargaonkar, A.; Deshpande, V., (2003). Development of an overall index of pollution for surface water based on a general classification scheme in Indian context. Environ. Monit. Assess., 89(1): 43-67 (25 pages).

Simboura, N.; Pavlidou, A.; Bald, J.; Tsapakis, M.; Pagou, K.;  Zeri, Ch.; Androni, A.; Panayotidis, P., (2016). Response of ecological indices to nutrient and chemical contaminant stress factors in Eastern Mediterranean coastal waters. Ecol. Indic, 70: 89–105 (17 pages).

Sutadian, A.D.; Muttil, N.; Yilmaz, A.G.; Perera, B.J.C., (2017). Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process to identify parameter weights for developing a water quality index.  Ecol. Indic., 75: 220–233 (14 pages).

Tyagi, S.; Sharma, B.; Singh, P.; Dobhal R., (2013). Water quality assessment in terms of water quality index. Am. J. Water Resour., 1(3): 34-38 (5 pages).

Yıldırım, P.; Balas, L., (2019). Monitoring and evaluation of coastal water quality parameters in Fethiye Bay, Turkey. Appl. Ecol. Environ. Res., 17(5): 10421-10444 (24 pages).

Zhang, J.; Wei, Z.; Jia, H.; Huang, X., (2017). Factors influencing water quality indices in a typical urban river originated with reclaimed water. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 11(4): 8 (10 pages).

Letters to Editor

GJESM Journal welcomes letters to the editor for the post-publication discussions and corrections which allows debate post publication on its site, through the Letters to Editor. Letters pertaining to manuscript published in GJESM should be sent to the editorial office of GJESM within three months of either online publication or before printed publication, except for critiques of original research. Following points are to be considering before sending the letters (comments) to the editor.

[1] Letters that include statements of statistics, facts, research, or theories should include appropriate references, although more than three are discouraged.
[2] Letters that are personal attacks on an author rather than thoughtful criticism of the author’s ideas will not be considered for publication.
[3] Letters can be no more than 300 words in length.
[4] Letter writers should include a statement at the beginning of the letter stating that it is being submitted either for publication or not.
[5] Anonymous letters will not be considered.
[6] Letter writers must include their city and state of residence or work.
[7] Letters will be edited for clarity and length.

CAPTCHA Image