1 Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

2 California Department of Food and Agriculture, 3288 Meadowview Road, Sacramento, CA 95832, USA

3 Department of Biochemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

4 Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

5 Department of Pharmacognosy, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan


In the present study ethanol and water extracts of 15 seaweeds, Dictyota dichotoma var. velutricata, Dictyota indica, Iyengaria stellata, Padina pavonia, Sargassum swartzii, Sargassum variegatum, Stoechospermum marginatum, Stokeyia indica, Jolyna laminarioides, Caulerpa taxifolia, Halimeda tuna, Ulva fasciata, Ulva lactuca, Solieria robusta, and Melanothamnus afaqhusainii, were evaluated for their antioxidant potential by ABTS or 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), superoxide and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assays.  The activity was concentration dependent and the variation in antioxidant potential was also observed by different assays in both extracts.  Ethanol extract of D. dichotoma var. velutricata, D. indica and S. marginatum demonstrated highest activity by TAC assay.  The antioxidant potential in organic solvent fractions of seaweeds namely P. pavonia, S. swartzii, S. marginatum and M. afaqhusainii was also determined and chloroform fraction of all the four seaweeds showed highest activity by superoxide assay.  Antioxidant activity of extracted fractions of polysaccharides from S. indica, C. taxifolia and D. dichotoma var. velutricata was also evaluated by superoxide method.  Polysaccharide fractions of S. indica obtained from HCl (at 700C and room temperature) and water extract demonstrated highest activity respectively.  All the polysaccharide fractions of C. taxifolia showed excellent activity except CaClF70°C. Polysaccharide fractions of D. dichotoma var. velutricata also exhibited very good activity.


Alasalvar, C.; Shahidi, F.; Miyashita, K.; Wanasundara, U., (2010). Seafood quality, safety and health applications: An overview. In: Alasalvar C, Miyashita, K, Shahidi F and Wanasundara U. (eds.).Handbook of Seafood Quality, Safety and Health Applications. Wiley Blackwell, Oxford. pp. 1-7 (7 pages).
Alves, A.; Caridade, S. G., Mano, J. F.; Sousa, R. A.; Reis, R. L., (2010). Ext raction and physico-chemical characterization of a versatile biodegradable polysaccharide obtained from green algae. Carbohyd. Res., (345): 2194-2200 (7 pages).
Armi tage, P. ; Berry, G., (1994). Stat istical Methods in Medicinal Research.3rd ed. Blackwell Scientific Publications, London.
Athukorala, Y.; Lee, K.W.; Song, C.; Ahn, C. B.; Shin; T. S.; Cha, Y. J.; Shahidi, F.; Jeon, Y. J., (2003). Potential of antioxidant activity of marine red alga Grateloupia filicina extracts. J. Food. Lipids., (10): 251-265 (15 pages).
Azevedo, T. C. G.; Bezerra, M. E.; Santos, M. D.; Souza, L. A.; Marques, C.T.; Benevides, N. M.; Leite, E. L., (2009). Heparinoids algal and their anticoagulant, hemorrhagic activities and platelet aggregation. Biomed. Pharmacother, (63): 477-483 (7 pages).
Blondin, C.; Fischer, E.; Boisson-Vidal, C.; Kazatchkine, M. D.; Jozefonvicz, J., (1994). Inhibition of complement activation by natural sulfated polysaccharides (fucans) from brown seaweed. Mole. Immunol., (31): 247-263 (17 pages).
Bobin-Dubigeon, C.; Lahaye, M.; Guillon, F.; Barry, J. L.; Gallant, D. J., (1997). Factors limiting the biodegradation of Ulva sp. cell-wall polysaccharides. J. Sci. Food. Agric., (75): 341-351 (11 pages).
Boonchum, W.; Peerapornpisal, Y.; Kanjanapothi, D.; Pekkoh, J.; Pumas, C.; Jamjai, U.; Amornlerdpison, D.; Noiraksar, T.; Vacharapiyasophon, P., (2011). Antioxidant activity of some seaweed from the Gulf of Thailand. Int. J Agric. Biol., (13):95-99 (5 pages).
Cao, G.; Prior, R. L., (1998). Comparison of different analytical methods for assessing total antioxidant capacity of human serum. Clin. Chem., (44):1309-1315 (7 pages).
Castro-Gonzalez, M. I.; Romo, F. P. G.; Perez-Estrella, S.; Carrillo-Dominguez, S., (1996). Chemical composition of the green alga Ulva lactuca. Cienc. Mar., (22): 205-213 (9 pages).
Chevolot, L.; Mulloy, B.; Ratiskol, J.; Foucault, A.; Colliec-Jouault, S., (2001). A disaccharide repeat unit is the major structure in fucoidans from two species of brown algae. Carbohyd. Res., (330): 529-535 (7 pages).
Chuhan, V.; Chuhan, A., (2006).Oxidative stress in Alzheimer’s disease. Pathophysiology, (13): 195-208 (14 pages).
Costa, L.S.; Telles, C. B.; Oliveira, R. M.; Nobre, L.T.; Dantas-Santos, N.; Camara, R. B.; Costa, M. S.; Almeida-Lima, J.; Melo-Silveira, R. F.; Albuquerque, I. R.; Leite, E. L., Rocha, H. A., (2011). Heterofucan from Sargassum filipendula induces apoptosis in HeLa cells. Mar. Drugs., 9): 603-614 (12 pages).
Cumashi, A.; Ushakova, N. A.; Preobrazhenskaya, M. E.; D’Incecco, A.; Piccoli, A.; Totani, L.; Tinari, N.; Morozevich, G. E.; Berman, A. E.; Bilan, M. I.; Usov, A. I.; Ustyuzhanina, N. E.; Grachev, A. A.; Sanderson, C. J.; Kelly, M.; Rabinovich, G. A.; Iacobelli, S.; Nifantiev, N. E., (2007). A comparative study of the anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, antiangiogenic and antiadhesive activities of nine different fucoidans from brown seaweeds. Glycobiology, (17): 541-552 (12 pages).
Damonte, E. B.; Matulewicz, M. C.; Cerezo, A. S., (2004). Sulfated seaweed polysaccharides as antiviral agents. Curr. Med. Chem., (11): 2399-2419 (21 pages).
Duan, X.; Zhang, W.; Li, X.; Wang, B., (2006). Evaluation of antioxidant property of extract and fractions obtained from a red alga, Polysiphonia urceolata. Food. Chem., (95): 37-43 (7 pages).
Duarte, M.; E. R.; Cardoso, M. A.; Noseda, M. D.; Cerezo, A.S., (2001). Structural studies on fucoidans from the brown seaweed Sargassum stenophyllum. Carbohyd. Res., (333): 281-293 (13 pages).
Duffy, C. F.; Power, R. F., (2001). Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of some Chinese plant extracts. Int .J. Antimicrob. Ag., (17): 527-529 (3 pages).
Duh, P. D. , (1998) . Ant ioxidant act ivi ty of burdock (Arctium lapp Linn): its scavenging effect on free radical and active oxygen. J. Amer. Oil. Chem. Soc., (75): 455-461 (7 pages).
El Hajaji, H.; Nadya Lachkar, N.; Alaoui, K.; Yahya Cherrah, Y.; Farah, A.; Ennabili, A.; El Bali, B.; Lachkar, M., (2010). Antioxidant properties and total phenolic content of three varieties of carob tree leaves from Morocco. Rec. Nat. Prod., (4): 193-204 (12 pages).
Ewing, J. C.; Cosgrove, J. P.; Giamalva, D. H.; Church, D. F.; Pryor, W. A., (1989). Autoxidation of methyl linoleate initiated by the ozonide of allylbenzene. Lipids., (24): 609-615 (7 pages).
Farias, E. H,; Pomin, V.H.; Valente, A. P.; Naderm, H. B.; Rocha, H. A.; Mourao, P. A., (2008). A preponderantly 4-sulfated, 3-linked galactan from the green alga Codiumisthmocladum. Glycobiology, (18): 250-259 (10 pages).
Fonseca, R. J. C.; Oliveira, S. N. M. C. G.; Melo, F. R.; Pereira, M. G.; Benevides, N. M. B.; Mourao, P. A. S., (2008). Slight differences in sulfation of algal galactans account for differences intheir anticoagulant and venous antithrombotic activities. Thromb. Haemost., (99): 539-545 (7 pages).
Frankel, E. N.; Meyer, A. S., (2000).The problems of using one-dimensional methods to evaluate multifunctional food and biological antioxidants. J. Sci. Food. Agric., (80): 1925-1941 (17 pages).
Frenette, P. S.; Weiss, L., (2000). Sulfated glycans induce rapid hematopoietic progenitor cell mobilization; evidence for selecting dependent and independent mechanisms. Blood., (96): 2460-2468 (9 pages).
Ganesan, P.; Chandini, S. K.; Bhaskar, N., (2008). Antioxidant properties of methanol extract and its solvent fractions obtained from selected Indian red seaweeds. Bioresource. Technol., (99): 2717-2723 (7 pages).
Halliwell, B.; Hoult, R. J.; Blake, D. R., (1988). Oxidants, inflammation and anti-inflammatory drugs. J. Fed. Amer. Soc. Exp. Biol., (2): 2867-2870 (4 pages).
Hayakawa, Y.; Hayashi, T.; Lee, J. B.; Srisomporn, P.; Maeda, M.; Ozawa, T.; Sakuragawa, N., (2000). Inhibition of thrombin by sulfated polysaccharides isolated from green algae. Biochim. Biophys. Acta., (1543): 86-94 (9 pages).
Huang, H. L.; Wang, B.G., (2004).Antioxidant capacity and lipophilic content of seaweeds collected from the Qingdao coastline. J. Agric. Food. Chem., (52): 4993-4997 (5 pages).
Ito, N.; Hirose, M.; Fukushima, S.; Tsuda, H.; Shirai, T.; Tatematsu, M., (1986). Studies on antioxidants: Their carcinogenic and modifying effects on chemical carcinogenesis. Food. Chem. Toxicol., (24): 1071-1082 (12 pages).
Kranl, K.; Schlesier, K.; Bitsch, R.; Hermann, H.; Rohe, M.; Bohm, V., (2005). Comparing anti-oxidative food additives and secondary plant products-use of different assays. Food. Chem., (93): 171-175 (5 pages).
Kuda, T.; Ikemori, T., (2009). Minerals, polysaccharides and antioxidant properties of aqueous solutions obtained from macro algal beach casts in the Noto Peninsula, Ishikawa, Japan. Food. Chem., (112): 575-581 (7 pages).
Kumaran, A. ; Karunakaran, R. J . , (2007) . In vi t ro ant ioxidant proper t ies of methanol ext racts of five Phi l lanthus species from India. LWT-Food. Sci . Technol., (40): 344-352 (9 pages).
Lahaye, M.; Ray, B., (1996). Cell-wall polysaccharides from the marine green alga Ulva rigida (Ulvales, Chlorophyta)-NMR analysis of ulvan oligosaccharides. Carbohyd. Res., (283): 161-173 (13 pages).
Lahaye, M.; Brunel, M.; Bonnin, E., (1997). Fine chemical structure analysis of oligosaccharides produced by an ulvanlyase degradation of the water-soluble cell-wall polysaccharides from Ulva sp. (Ulvales, Chlorophyta). Carbohyd. Res., (304): 325-333 (9 pages).
Lai, L. S.; Chou, S. T.; Chao, W. W., (2001). Studies on antioxidative activities of hsain-tsao (Mesona procumbent Shemls) leaf gum. J. Agric. Food. Chem., (49): 963-968 (6 pages).
Li, B.; Lu, F.; Wei, X.; Zhao, R., (2008). Fucoidan: structure and bioactivity. Molecules, (13): 1671-1695 (25 pages).
McKinnell J.P., Percival E. (1962). Structural investigations on water soluble polysaccharide of green seaweed Enteromorpha compressa. J. Chem. Soc., (1962): 3141-3148 (8 pages).
Marinova, E. M.; Yanishlieva, N. V., (1997). Antioxidative activity of extracts from selected species of the family Lamiaceae in sunflower oil. Food. Chem., (58): 245-248 (4 pages).
Martinez-Valverde, I.; Periago, M. J.; Provan, G.; Chesson, A., (2002). Phenolic compounds, lycopene and antioxidant activity in commercial varieties of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum). J. Sci. Food. Agric., 82: 323-330 (8 pages).
Matsubara, K.; Matsuura, Y.; Bacic, A.; Liao, M.; Hori, K.; Miyazawa, K. , (2001). Anticoagulant properties of a sulfated galactan preparation from amarine green alga, Codium cylindricum. Int. J. Biol. Macromol., (8): 395-399 (5 pages).
Mauray, S.; Sternberg, C.; Theveniaux, J.; Millet, J.; Sinquin, C.; Tapon-Bretaudiere, J.; Fischer, A .M., (1995). Venous antithrombotic and anticoagulant activities of a fucoidan fraction. Thromb. Haemost., (74): 1280-1285 (6 pages).
Painter, T. J., (1983). Algal polysaccharides. In: Aspinall, G.O. (eds.). The Polysaccharides. Academic Press: London, (2): 195-285 (91 pages).
Patankar, M. S.; Oehninger, S.; Barnett, T.; Williams, R. L.; Clark, G. F., (1993). A revised structure for fucoidan may explain some of its biological activities. J. Biol. Chem., (268): 21770-21776 (7 pages).
Percival, E.; McDowell, R. H., (1967). Chemistry and Enzymology of Marine Algal Polysaccharides. Academic Press: New York. pp. 219.
Ponce, N. M. A.; Pujol, C. A.; Damonte, E. B.; Flores, M. L.; Stortz, C. A., (2003). Fucoidans from the brown seaweed Adenocystis utricularis: extraction methods, antiviral activity and structural studies. Carbohyd. Res., (338): 153-165 (13 pages).
Prieto, P.; Pineda, M.; Aguilar, M., (1999). Spectrophotometric quantitation of antioxidant capacity through the formation of a phosphomolybdenum complex: specific application to the determination of vitamin E. Anal. Biochem., (269): 337-341 (6 pages).
Prior, R. L.; Cao, G., (1999).In vivo total antioxidant capacity: comparison of different analytical methods. Free. Rad. Biol. Med., (27): 1173-1181(9 pages).
Prior, R.; Wu, X.; Schaich, K., (2005).Standardized methods for the determination of antioxidants capacity and phenolics in foods and dietary supplements. J. Agric. Food. Chem., (53):4290-4302 (13 pages).
Rana, M. G.; Katbamna, R. V.; Padhya, A. A.; Dudhrejiya, A. D.; Jivani, N. P.; Sheth, N. R., (2010). In vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging studies of alcoholic extract of Medicago sativa L. Rom. J. Biol.- Plant. Biol., (55): 15-22 (8 pages).
Ray, B.; Lahaye, M., (1995a). Cell-wall polysaccharides from the marine green alga Ulva rigida (Ulvales, Chlorophyta).Chemical structure of ulvan. Carbohyd. Res., (274): 313-318 (6 pages).
Ray, B.; Lahaye, M., (1995b). Cell-wall polysaccharides from the marine green alga Ulva rigida (Ulvales, Chlorophyta). Extraction and chemical composition Carbohyd. Res., 274: 251-261 (11 pages).
Re, R.; Pellegrini, N.; Proteggente, A.; Pannala, A. Y. M.; Rice-Evans, C., (1999). Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorizing assay. Free. Radical. Biol. Med., (26):1231-1237 (7 pages).
Renn, D. W., (1993). Medical and biotechnological applications of marine macroalgal polysaccharides. In: Attaway, D.H. and Zaborsky, O.R. (eds.). Marine Biotechnology. Plenum Press, New York. pp. 181-196 (16 pages).
Robic, A.; Rondeau-Mouro, C.; Sassi, J. F.; Lerat, Y.; Lahaye, M., (2009). Structure and interactions of ulvan in the cell wall of the marine green algae Ulva rotundata (Ulvales, Chlorophyceae). Carbohyd. Polym., (77): 206-216 (11 pages).
Ruperez, P.; Ahrazem, O.; Leal, J. A., (2002). Potential antioxidant capacity of sulfated polysaccharides from the edible marine brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus. J. Agric. Food. Chem., (50): 840-845 (6 pages).
Safer, A. M.; Al-Nughamish, A. J., (1999). Hepatotoxicity induced by the antioxidant food additive butylatedhydroxytoluene (BHT) in rats: An electron microscopical study. Histol. Histopathol., (14): 391-406 (8 pages).
Shanmugam, M.; Mody, K. H., (2000) .Heparinoid-active sulphated polysaccharides from marine algae as potential blood anticoagulant agents. Curr. Sci., (79): 1672-1683 (12 pages).
Tariq, A.; Ara, J.; Sultana, V.; Ehteshamul-Haque, S.; Athar, M., (2011). Antioxidant potential of seaweeds occurring at Karachi coast of Pakistan. J. Appl. Bot. Food. Qual., (84): 207-212 (6 pages).
Usov, A. I., (1998). Structural analysis of red seaweed galactans of agar and carrageenan groups. Food. Hydrocolloid., (12): 301-308 (8 pages).
Usov, A. I.; Velde, F. V. D.; Knutsen, S. H.; Rollem, H. S.; Cerezo, A. S., (2002). 1H and 13C high resolution NMR spectroscopy of  carrageenans: application in research and industry. Trends. Food. Sci., (13): 73-92 (20 pages).
Yamamoto, M. , (1980) . Phys icochemical s tudies on sulfated polysaccharides ext racted from seaweeds at various temperatures. Agric. Biol. Chem., (44): 589-593 (5 pages).
Yan, X.; Nagata, T.; Fan, X.,(1998). Antioxidant activities in some common seaweeds. Plant. Food. Human. Nutr., (52): 253-262 (10 pages).
Yuan, Y. V.; Bone, D. E.; Carrington, M. F., (2005). Antioxidant activity of dulse (Palmaria Palmata) extract evaluated in vitro. Food. Chem., (91): 485-494 (10 pages).
Zubia, M.; Robledo, D.; Frei le-Pelegrin, Y., (2006).Antioxidant activities in tropical marine macroalgae from the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. J. Appl. Phycol., (19): 449-458 (10 pages).
Alasalvar C., Shahidi F., Miyashita K., Wanasundara U. (2010). Seafood quality, safety and health applications: An overview. In: Alasalvar C, Miyashita, K, Shahidi F and Wanasundara U. (eds.).Handbook of Seafood Quality, Safety and Health Applications. Wiley Blackwell, Oxford.. , 1-7

Letters to Editor

GJESM Journal welcomes letters to the editor for the post-publication discussions and corrections which allows debate post publication on its site, through the Letters to Editor. Letters pertaining to manuscript published in GJESM should be sent to the editorial office of GJESM within three months of either online publication or before printed publication, except for critiques of original research. Following points are to be considering before sending the letters (comments) to the editor.

[1] Letters that include statements of statistics, facts, research, or theories should include appropriate references, although more than three are discouraged.
[2] Letters that are personal attacks on an author rather than thoughtful criticism of the author’s ideas will not be considered for publication.
[3] Letters can be no more than 300 words in length.
[4] Letter writers should include a statement at the beginning of the letter stating that it is being submitted either for publication or not.
[5] Anonymous letters will not be considered.
[6] Letter writers must include their city and state of residence or work.
[7] Letters will be edited for clarity and length.