1 Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jalan Grafika, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia

2 Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jalan Grafika, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia



BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Agriculture significantly contributes to global economies, yet it concurrently generates waste in the form of crop residues. Conventional waste disposal methods, such as open burning, contribute to atmospheric particulate emissions, impacting air quality regionally and potentially globally. Exposure to these pollutants poses substantial risks to human health, including respiratory illnesses, cardiovascular diseases, and premature mortality. This study aims to assess the environmental implications of biomass waste combustion in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Additionally, the study aims to investigate potential enhancements in biomass burning practices through experimental campaigns conducted in both open and closed burning conditions.
METHODS: The study evaluates Yogyakarta's regional air quality using data from the Meteorology, Climatology, and Geophysical Agency for the period spanning from 2020 to 2022. Emission factors from open and closed burning practices are assessed using an experimental furnace equipped with real-time combustion parameters monitoring, including temperature, particulate matter concentration, and oxygen and carbon dioxide levels. The openburning experiments involve various combustion conditions for bagasse, leaf litter, and rice straw, encompassing variations in ignition location, initial mass, and air supply methods. Closed burning experiments explore variations in reloading frequency, air-fuel ratio, and air staging.
FINDINGS: Yogyakarta's air quality assessment involves comparing rice harvest trends with atmospheric particulate matter concentrations during 2020-2022. Open burning practices in Yogyakarta exhibit a correlation with heightened rainfall, which in turn leads to higher emissions from April to August due to reduced rain frequency. Experimental campaigns have revealed that open burning practices result in a significant amount of emissions, ranging from 3 to 29 grams of particulate matter per kilogram of biomass.. Meanwhile, the utilization of closed combustion systems has been demonstrated to decrease the emission factor within the range of 0.37 to 1.98 grams of particulate matter per kilogram of biomass. This highlights the importance of operating conditions altering particulate emissions. Moreover, the emission reduction by factor nine, emphasizing the efficacy of controlled combustion techniques in comparison to open burning methods, in mitigating particulate emissions.
CONCLUSION: The study identifies that greater initial biomass mass, mid-ignition, and natural airflow contribute to lower emissions in open burning practices. o achieve optimal closed combustion conditions, it is recommended to reload biomass more frequently with100 percent excess air allocation, distributing 30 percent to primary air and 70 percent to secondary air. These findings not only propose better practices for disposing of agricultural waste and minimizing air pollution but also emphasize the potential of utilizing biomass waste for energy conversion.

Graphical Abstract

Particulate matter emission in agricultural biomass residue combustion


  • Regional atmospheric particulate emission in Yogyakarta, Indonesia is contributed significantly from agricultural waste open burning practices;
  • Lower emission level in open burning practices is obtained to with more initial biomass mass, middle ignition, and utilization of natural air flow;
  • Lower emission level in closed burning condition is attained by utilization of more frequent biomass reloading with 100 percent excess air which allocated to 30 percent as primary air and 70 percent as secondary air;
  • Significant reduction of emission level using closed burning furnace compared to open burning practice.


Main Subjects


©2024 The author(s). This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit:


GJESM Publisher remains neutral concerning jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.


Google Scholar Scopus Web of Science PlumX Metrics Altmetrics Mendeley |


GJESM Publisher

Letters to Editor

GJESM Journal welcomes letters to the editor for the post-publication discussions and corrections which allows debate post publication on its site, through the Letters to Editor. Letters pertaining to manuscript published in GJESM should be sent to the editorial office of GJESM within three months of either online publication or before printed publication, except for critiques of original research. Following points are to be considering before sending the letters (comments) to the editor.

[1] Letters that include statements of statistics, facts, research, or theories should include appropriate references, although more than three are discouraged.
[2] Letters that are personal attacks on an author rather than thoughtful criticism of the author’s ideas will not be considered for publication.
[3] Letters can be no more than 300 words in length.
[4] Letter writers should include a statement at the beginning of the letter stating that it is being submitted either for publication or not.
[5] Anonymous letters will not be considered.
[6] Letter writers must include their city and state of residence or work.
[7] Letters will be edited for clarity and length.