1 University Félix Houphouet Boigny de Cocody, UFR Sciences Médicales Abidjan Programme Doctoral Interuniversitaire de Santé Publique. Spécialités : Ecosystèmes, santé et développement durable, Bp V 14 Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire

2 University Félix Houphouet Boigny de Cocody, UFR des Sciences Structure de la Matière et Technologie, Laboratoire de Physique de l’Atmosphère, 22 BP 582 Abidjan 22, Côte d’Ivoire

3 Universty Peleforo Gon Coulibaly, BP 1328 Korhogo, Côte d’Ivoire

4 Department of Environmental Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Fogarty International Center Southern African Program in Environmental and Occupational Health University of Michigan, Michigan, USA


Indoor air pollution associated with cooking and heating biomass fuel burning is estimated to be responsible for 7 million deaths in 2016 and most of these deaths occur in low and middle income countries. In Côte d'Ivoire, 73% of the population is reported using biomass (charcoal or wood) for cooking. The active device 3M EVM-7 was used to measure PM2.5 daily average concentrations inside and outside households in areas close (Andokoi) and far (Lubafrique) to an industrial zone in two popular neighborhoods of Yopougon, the largest and most populated municipality of the city of Abidjan (Côte d’Ivoire). PM2.5 daily average concentrations indoors and outdoors are respectively 121±12 µg/m3 and 117±8 µg/m3 in Andokoi and 32±3 µg/m3 and 41±4 µg/m3 in Lubafrique well above the World Health Organization guideline value (25 µg/m3) for air quality. Using multivariable models, the results were the number of windows in bedrooms and kitchens located outdoor were negatively correlated with the concentration of indoor PM2.5. The outdoor concentrations of PM2.5, were higher according to the cooking fuel type. 

Graphical Abstract

Exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollution among children under five years old in urban area


  • Concentrations of PM2.5 on the two neighborhoods in Yopougon (Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire) were greater than WHO Air quality guidelines for particulate matter (PM2.5 lower than 25 µg/m3 24-hour mean)
  • Local sources (biomass burning, traffic, low income quality of housing) contributed to increase the level of indoor air pollutants
  • Children under five-year-old in Yopougon municipality are exposed to PM2.5 daily average concentration greater than 25 µg/m3.


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