Department of Biotechnology, Kumaraguru College of Technology, Coimbatore – 641006, India


Inorganic polyphosphates (PolyP) are linear polymers of few to several hundred orthophosphate residues, linked by energy-rich phosphoanhydride bonds. Four isolates had been screened from soil sample. By MALDI-TOF analysis, they were identified as Bacillius cereus, Acinetobacter towneri, B. megaterium and B. cereus. The production of PolyP in four isolates was studied in phosphate uptake medium and sulfur deficient medium at pH 7. These organisms had shown significant production of PolyP after 22h of incubation. PolyP was extracted from the cells using alkaline lysis method. Among those isolates, Acinetobacter towneri was found to have high (24.57% w/w as P) accumulation of PolyP in sulfur deficient medium. The media optimization for sulfur deficiency was carried out using Response surface methodology (RSM). It was proven that increase in phosphate level in the presence of glucose, under sulfur limiting condition, enhanced the phosphate accumulation by Acinetobacter towneri and these condition can be simulated for the effective removal of phosphate from wastewater sources.


Auling, G.; Pilz, F.; Busse, H.J.; Karrasch, M.; Streichan, M.; Schon, G., (1991). Analysis of polyphosphate accumulating microflora in phosphorus-eliminating, anaerobic-aerobic activated sludge systems by using diaminopropane as a biomarker for rapid estimation of Acinetobacter spp. Appl.  Environ. Microbiol., (57): 3585-3592 (8 pages).
Bond, P.L.; Erhart, R.; Wagner, M.; Keller, J.; Blackall, L.L., (1999). Identification of some of the major groups of  bacteria in efficient and non-efficient biological phosphorus removal activated sludge systems. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 65(9): 4077-4088 (11 pages).
Dawes, E.A.; Senior, P.J., (1973). Energy reserve polymers in microorganisms. Adv. Microb. Physiol., (10): 178-203 (26 pages).
Florentz, M.; Granger, P., (1983). Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance of activated sludge: Use for the study of the biological removal of phosphates from wastewater. Environ. Technol. Lett., (4): 9-12 (4 pages).
Fuhs, G.W.; Chen, M., (1975). Microbial basis of Pi removal in the activated sludge process for the treatment of waste water. Microbial. Ecol., (2): 119-138 (20 pages).
Geissdorfer, W.; Ratajczak, A.; Hillen, W., (1998). Transcription of ppk from Acinetobacter sp. strain ADP1, encoding a putative polyphosphate kinase, is induced by phosphate starvation. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., (64): 896-901 (6 pages).
Harold, F.M., (1966). Inorganic polyphosphates in biology: structure, metabolism, and Function Bacteriol. Rev., (30): 772-794 (23 pages).
Jawad, A.; Hawkey, P. M.; Heritage, J.; Snelling, A. M., (1994). Description of Leeds Acinetobacter Medium, a new selective and differential medium for isolation of clinically important Acinetobacter spp., and comparison with Herellea agar and Holton’s agar. J. Clin. Microbiol., (32): 2353–2358 (6 pages).
Khoi, L.Q.; Diep, C. N., (2013). Isolation and phylogenetic analysis of polyphosphate accumulating organisms in water and sludge of intensive catfish ponds in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam American. J. Life Sci., 1(2): 61-71 (11 pages).
Kornberg, A., (1995). Inorganic polyphosphate: Towards making a forgotten polymer Unforgettable. J. Bacteriol., 177(3): 491-496 (6 pages).
Kornberg, A.; Fraley, C.D., (2000). Inorganic polyphosphate: a molecular fossil come to life ASM. News, (66): 275-280 (6 pages).
Kulaev, I.S., (1975). Biochemistry of inorganic polyphosphates. Rev. Physiol. Biochem. Pharmacal., (73): 131-158 (28 pages).
Kulaev, I.S.; Vagabov, V. M., (1983). Polyphosphate metabolism in microorganisms. Adv. Microbiol. Physiol., (15): 731-738 (8 pages).
Kulaev, I.S.; Vagabov, V. M.; Kulakovskaya, T.V., (1999). New aspects of inorganic polyphosphate metabolism and function. J. Biosci. Bioeng., .(88): 111-129 (19 pages).
Kulakovskaya, T.V.; Vagabov, V. M.; Kulaev, I. S., (2012). Inorganic polyphosphates in industry, agriculture and medicine: Modern state and outlook. Process Biochem., (47): 1-10 (10 pages).
Mino, T.; Van Loosdrecht, M. C. M.; Heijnen, J. J., (1998). Microbiology and biochemistry of the enhanced biological phosphate removal process. Water Res., (32): 3193–3207 (15 pages).
Mullan, A.; Quinn, J. P.; McGrath, J. W., (2002). Enhanced Phosphate Uptake and Polyphosphate Accumulation in Burkholderia cepacia Grown under Low-pH Conditions. Microb. Ecol., (44): 69-77 (9 pages).
Oehmen, A.; Lemos, P. C.; Carvalho, G.; Yuan, Z.; Keller, J.; Blackall, L. L.; Reis, M. A. M., (2007). Advances in enhanced biological phosphorus removal: from micro to macro scale. Water Res., (41): 2272-2300 (29 pages).
Saheki, S.; Takeda, A.; Shimazu, T., (1985). Assay of inorganic phosphate in the mild pH range, suitable for measurement of glycogen phosphorylase activity. Anla. Biochem., (148): 277-281 (5 pages).
Serafim, L. S.; Lemos, P. C.; Levantesi, C.; Tandoi, V.; Santos, H.; Reis, M. A. M., (2002). Methods for detection and visualization of intracellular polymers stored by polyphosphate-accumulating microorganisms. J. Microbiol. Met., (51): 1-18 (18 pages).
Streichan, M.; Golecki, J.R.; Schon, G., (1990). Polyphosphateaccumulating bacteria from sewage plants with different processes for biological phosphorus removal FEMS. Microbiol. Ecol., (73), 113-124 (11 pages).
Sun, Z.Y.; Zhao, L., (2002). Feasibility of calcium polyphosphate fiber as scaffold materials for tendon tissue engineering in vitro. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi, (16): 426–428 (3 pages).
Suresh, N.; Warburg, R.; Timmerman, M.; Wells, J.; Coccia, M.; Roberts, M. F.; Halvorson, H. O., (1984). New strategies for the isolation of microorganisms responsible for phosphate accumulation [in] Enhanced Biological phosphorus Removal from Wastewater”. Proceeding of the IAWPRC Post Conference, Paris.   

Letters to Editor

GJESM Journal welcomes letters to the editor for the post-publication discussions and corrections which allows debate post publication on its site, through the Letters to Editor. Letters pertaining to manuscript published in GJESM should be sent to the editorial office of GJESM within three months of either online publication or before printed publication, except for critiques of original research. Following points are to be considering before sending the letters (comments) to the editor.

[1] Letters that include statements of statistics, facts, research, or theories should include appropriate references, although more than three are discouraged.
[2] Letters that are personal attacks on an author rather than thoughtful criticism of the author’s ideas will not be considered for publication.
[3] Letters can be no more than 300 words in length.
[4] Letter writers should include a statement at the beginning of the letter stating that it is being submitted either for publication or not.
[5] Anonymous letters will not be considered.
[6] Letter writers must include their city and state of residence or work.
[7] Letters will be edited for clarity and length.