Document Type : CASE STUDY


1 Department of Environmental Engineering, Universitas Kristen Indonesia Tomohon, Jl. Raya Kakaskasen, Tomohon, Indonesia

2 Department of Agribusiness, Universitas Kristen Indonesia Tomohon, Jl. Raya Kakaskasen, Tomohon, Indonesia

3 Department of Civil Engineering, Universitas Kristen Indonesia Tomohon, Jl. Raya Kakaskasen, Tomohon, Indonesia

4 Department of Architecture, Universitas Kristen Indonesia Tomohon, Jl. Raya Kakaskasen, Tomohon, Indonesia

5 Department of Psychology, Universitas Kristen Indonesia Tomohon, Jl. Raya Kakaskasen, Tomohon, Indonesia



BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Anthropogenic activities in livestock sectors are responsible for emitting substantial amounts of greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide, methane, and dinitrous oxide, into the atmosphere, thereby contributing to climate change. The impact of these gases can be reduced through effective mitigation and adaptation efforts. This study aimed to estimate the livestock greenhouse gas emissions in Minahasa District, Indonesia; identify the greenhouse gas sources and distribution; and provide feasible mitigation options.
METHODS: This study used mixed methods to collect primary and secondary data from breeders and stakeholders in the Minahasa Regency. Interviews and questionnaires were also conducted, and the local government office provided secondary data. Breeders from various groups who lived in 25 different districts participated in this study, and the data analysis techniques used a Tier 1 model to process the data. The participants were included in focus group discussion activities for qualitative data collection to formulate potential mitigation strategies.
FINDINGS: The livestock sector emitted 48.83 gigagrams of carbon dioxide equivalent in 2021, and this was expected to increase by 24.98 percent in 2022, resulting in a total emission of 65.09 gigagrams of carbon dioxide equivalent. The sector also experienced a steady rise in emissions since 2010, with an average annual increase of 3.17 percent. The emissions were primarily composed of methane and dinitrous oxide, which accounted for 64.68 and 0.41 gigagrams carbon dioxide equivalent, respectively. In terms of livestock greenhouse gas distribution, the Sonder District produced 13.98 percent of the emission at 8.77 gigagrams of carbon dioxide equivalent. The main emissions resulted from methane manure management and enteric fermentation at 84.53 and 15.23 percent (7.41 and 1.34 gigagrams of carbon dioxide equivalent, respectively), while the remaining was composed of dinitrous oxide gas. In Kawangkoan District, the greenhouse gas emissions were dominated by methane from enteric fermentation and manure management, which accounted for 15.23 and 20.05 percent (5.63 and 1.43 gigagrams of carbon dioxide equivalent). In addition, the total emission accounted for 11.33 percent at 7.11 gigagrams of carbon dioxide equivalent.
CONCLUSION: The study produced an estimate of greenhouse gases from the livestock sector in the Minahasa Regency. During the studied period (2010-2022), the total greenhouse gas emissions exhibited an average annual increase of 3.17 percent. In 2022, the emissions consisted of methane and dinitrous oxide, with respective contributions of 99.38 percent per year and 0.62. Based on the spatial mapping, the Sonder District produced the largest cumulative emissions, primarily driven by emissions from animal waste management. Conversely, the Kawangkoan District dominated emissions stemming from the enteric fermentation of ruminant animals. These findings imply that all stakeholders in the Minahasa Regency should prioritize efforts to implement adaptation and mitigation programs to reduce these impacts. 

Graphical Abstract

Estimation of livestock greenhouse gas for impact mitigation


  • There were three periods of increase in livestock GHG during the estimation period (2010-2022), with an average increase of 3.17%;
  • The largest emission source is methane gas of 64.68 Gg/CO2-eq/y, followed by a N2O of 0.41 Gg/CO2/y;
  • Methane gas derived from enteric fermentation dominates total emissions, although the population of non-ruminant animals is more significant than that of ruminants;
  • Climate change and its various phenomena are a reality that urgently needs concrete action to overcome it and must be done together at the global, regional, national, and local levels.


Main Subjects


©2024 The author(s). This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit:


GJESM Publisher remains neutral concerning jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.


Google Scholar Scopus Web of Science PlumX Metrics Altmetrics Mendeley |


Letters to Editor

GJESM Journal welcomes letters to the editor for the post-publication discussions and corrections which allows debate post publication on its site, through the Letters to Editor. Letters pertaining to manuscript published in GJESM should be sent to the editorial office of GJESM within three months of either online publication or before printed publication, except for critiques of original research. Following points are to be considering before sending the letters (comments) to the editor.

[1] Letters that include statements of statistics, facts, research, or theories should include appropriate references, although more than three are discouraged.
[2] Letters that are personal attacks on an author rather than thoughtful criticism of the author’s ideas will not be considered for publication.
[3] Letters can be no more than 300 words in length.
[4] Letter writers should include a statement at the beginning of the letter stating that it is being submitted either for publication or not.
[5] Anonymous letters will not be considered.
[6] Letter writers must include their city and state of residence or work.
[7] Letters will be edited for clarity and length.