Document Type : CASE STUDY


Department of Agribusiness, University of Tanjungpura, Pontianak, Indonesia


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Indonesia is the second largest natural rubber producer, which it gets primarily from smallholders. However, smallholders are less and less competitive because of unsustainable agricultural practices, while there is huge potential for sustainable natural rubber. This study aimed to measure the effect of income and smallholder characteristics on cultivation, harvesting, and post-harvest management.
METHODS: Mixed methods with non-probability sampling were used for 100 natural rubber smallholders in Kapuas Hulu Regency, West Kalimantan, Indonesia, one of the regional centers of Indonesian natural rubber. Partial least square path modeling was used with SmartPLS software to estimate the complex cause-effect relationships of smallholder and farm factors for adopting sustainable agricultural practices.
FINDINGS: The effect of the relationship between income and smallholder characteristics on cultivation and income on post-harvest management was not significant. Age and education affected some harvesting parameters, such as tapping knives, bamboo and clean latex collection, and latex stimulus risk, and some post-harvest parameters, such as a risk of acid coagulation and storage. The worker's income source, based on off-farm, on-farm, or non-farm activities, affected harvesting parameters, including tapping knives, bamboo and clean latex collection, and latex stimulus risk.  
CONCLUSION: This study offers empirical evidence for sustainable agriculture management. The acceptance of sustainable cultivation and management of rubber practices uses smallholder and farm factors as constraints since they do not form a homogenous group, and the theory of planned behavior failed to provide an effective way to explain the behaviors. Good agricultural practices must be used at all steps, including cultivation, harvesting, and post-harvest management, to prevent problems. 

Graphical Abstract

The effect of income and smallholder characteristics on cultivation, harvesting, and post-harvest management of natural rubber


  • Income and smallholder characteristics affect harvest, while smallholder characteristics affect post-harvest. Still, income and smallholder characteristics are not affected at the farm, and income is not affected post-harvest;
  • Off-farm income is the largest contributor, followed by on-farm and non-farm income, while age is the most significant smallholder characteristic, followed by education;
  • Tapping knives, bamboo latex collectors, clean latex collection, and latex stimulus risk are the most important of harvest, while the risks of acid for coagulation and storage in post-harvest.


Main Subjects

©2023 The author(s). This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit:


GJESM Publisher remains neutral concerning jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.


Google Scholar Scopus Web of Science PlumX Metrics Altmetrics Mendeley |


GJESM Publisher


Letters to Editor

GJESM Journal welcomes letters to the editor for the post-publication discussions and corrections which allows debate post publication on its site, through the Letters to Editor. Letters pertaining to manuscript published in GJESM should be sent to the editorial office of GJESM within three months of either online publication or before printed publication, except for critiques of original research. Following points are to be considering before sending the letters (comments) to the editor.

[1] Letters that include statements of statistics, facts, research, or theories should include appropriate references, although more than three are discouraged.
[2] Letters that are personal attacks on an author rather than thoughtful criticism of the author’s ideas will not be considered for publication.
[3] Letters can be no more than 300 words in length.
[4] Letter writers should include a statement at the beginning of the letter stating that it is being submitted either for publication or not.
[5] Anonymous letters will not be considered.
[6] Letter writers must include their city and state of residence or work.
[7] Letters will be edited for clarity and length.