1 Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chiang Mai University, Thailand

2 Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taiwan

3 Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University, Thailand


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Rapid urbanization negatively affects the hydrologic cycle and makes cities vulnerable to disastrous flash floods. It can additionally cause erosion and water pollution in natural ecosystems. Global climate changes have exacerbated such issues, further upsetting hydrologic patterns. Therefore, many regions have considered the rain garden as green infrastructure, which can help mitigate urban runoff. However, design guidelines and the means of assessing rain garden cost effectiveness in the Global South are limited. Furthermore, as many countries in the Global South experience a tropical climate, design guidelines developed in the temperate Global North may not be directly transferable. The need for more information on design and cost effectiveness can make designers and decision makers hesitate to implement such a new strategy. The main objective of the present study is to create a design approach and simultaneously specify the cost of the infiltration rate of the rain garden in urban areas.
METHODS: This study focuses on the ability of rain garden design to determine accurately the cost of materials used for construction. Sand and gravel are used in different sand ratios in the filter media layer, namely 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, and 1:4. The storage layer uses gravel only and has only one design. The aim is to determine the change in infiltration rate with an increase in the amount of sand. Knowing the amount of sand can determine the cost per infiltration rate.
FINDINGS: The results showed that the most efficient design was a rain garden with a soil:sand ratio of 1:4, which increased the infiltration rate per cost by 2.00 millimeters per hour per United States Dollar per square meter. The lowest efficiency option was a soil:sand ratio of 1:1, which increased the infiltration rate per cost by 1.33 millimeters per hour per United States Dollar per square meter.
CONCLUSION: This study will serve as a guide for designers to design a rain garden area according to the needs of the area, having determined the construction cost per infiltration rate. However, spatial requirements, construction costs, and social factors may influence future decisions on rain garden design and must be studied further.

Graphical Abstract

Economics and cost effectiveness of a rain garden for flood-resistant urban design


  • Rain gardens can effectively reduce stormwater runoff in urban areas by using porous filter media from mixing sand with soil. It can be designed to meet local needs and budgetary limitations;
  • The study also provides an equation to accurately determine the infiltration rate per cost and identifies the optimal rain garden design;
  • The study's findings have practical implications for urban planners and policymakers seeking to adopt rain gardens as part of their flood-resistant urban design strategy.


Main Subjects


©2024 The author(s). This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit:


GJESM Publisher remains neutral concerning jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.


Google Scholar Scopus Web of Science PlumX Metrics Altmetrics Mendeley |


GJESM Publisher

Letters to Editor

GJESM Journal welcomes letters to the editor for the post-publication discussions and corrections which allows debate post publication on its site, through the Letters to Editor. Letters pertaining to manuscript published in GJESM should be sent to the editorial office of GJESM within three months of either online publication or before printed publication, except for critiques of original research. Following points are to be considering before sending the letters (comments) to the editor.

[1] Letters that include statements of statistics, facts, research, or theories should include appropriate references, although more than three are discouraged.
[2] Letters that are personal attacks on an author rather than thoughtful criticism of the author’s ideas will not be considered for publication.
[3] Letters can be no more than 300 words in length.
[4] Letter writers should include a statement at the beginning of the letter stating that it is being submitted either for publication or not.
[5] Anonymous letters will not be considered.
[6] Letter writers must include their city and state of residence or work.
[7] Letters will be edited for clarity and length.