Document Type : REVIEW PAPER


1 Doctoral Program on Environmental Sciences, Postgraduate School, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung City, West Java, Indonesia

2 Geography Programme, Centre for Research in Development, Social and Environmen, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia

3 Master Program on Sustainability Science, Postgraduate School, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung City, West Java, Indonesia


Landscape dynamics are a consequence of population growth, which can degrade river ecosystem services. Since various countries approved the millennium ecosystem assessment, it has inspired researchers to examine the relationship between landscape and river ecosystem services. Therefore, this study aims to summarize previous studies about landscape and river ecosystem services using a systematic literature review. This study referred to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis. Data were obtained from six databases of scientific publications such as Scopus, Pubmed, Directory of Open Access Journals, Scilit, Neliti, and Garba Rujukan Digital. The results show that research on this topic has spread worldwide. Landscape data, reflected in land use and land cover, came from various sources containing geospatial information and is combined with field surveys. There were 3-18 types of land use and land cover and it did not always reflect detailed information about the research area. Meanwhile, nutrient regulation and water quality attracted the most attention for river ecosystem services. The interaction between the two variables is revealed through inferential statistics and modeling. As representations of the natural landscape, forests and grasslands have a positive and significant contribution to river ecosystem services. Therefore, knowledge of landscape and river ecosystem services is a preliminary effort to understand environmental processes in achieving sustainability, also valuable input for conservation and rehabilitation strategies in many countries. This review can be a proper reference for environmental management, especially in the landscape changes related to river ecosystem services.

Graphical Abstract

Relationship between landscape and river ecosystem services


  • This review found 17 eligible articles to reveal the interaction between landscape and river ecosystem services – since the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment was ratified in 2005;
  • Researchers conducted landscape assessments referring to the spatial data and combined them with field activities;
  • Landscape data is classified into 3-18 types of land use land cover, the detail not always related to the size of research area;
  • Nutrient regulation and water quality can reveal changes in river ecosystem services due to landscape dynamics;
  • Forests and grasslands can contribute positively to river ecosystem services.


Main Subjects


©2023 The author(s). This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third-party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit:


GJESM Publisher remains neutral concerning jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.


Google Scholar Scopus Web of Science PlumX Metrics Altmetrics Mendeley |


GJESM Publisher

Letters to Editor

GJESM Journal welcomes letters to the editor for the post-publication discussions and corrections which allows debate post publication on its site, through the Letters to Editor. Letters pertaining to manuscript published in GJESM should be sent to the editorial office of GJESM within three months of either online publication or before printed publication, except for critiques of original research. Following points are to be considering before sending the letters (comments) to the editor.

[1] Letters that include statements of statistics, facts, research, or theories should include appropriate references, although more than three are discouraged.
[2] Letters that are personal attacks on an author rather than thoughtful criticism of the author’s ideas will not be considered for publication.
[3] Letters can be no more than 300 words in length.
[4] Letter writers should include a statement at the beginning of the letter stating that it is being submitted either for publication or not.
[5] Anonymous letters will not be considered.
[6] Letter writers must include their city and state of residence or work.
[7] Letters will be edited for clarity and length.