1 Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Indonesia, Gedung E, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia

2 Faculty of Science and Marine Environment University Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia

3 Occupational Health and Safety Department, Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia, C Building 1st Floor Kampus Baru UI. Depok 16424, Indonesia



BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Coastal ecosystems worldwide have been threatened by changing land use and environmental determinants. These conditions have impacted important marine resources, including fish diversity. Southeast Asia, one region experiencing massive land use change, still has limited information on how land use and disturbed coastal ecosystems impact fish diversity. This information is urgently needed as fish is one of the most important food resources here. This study aims to assess and compare the environment and tropical fish community between disturbed and intact sites, represented by coasts dominated by settlements and coasts dominated by mangrove forests in West Java, Indonesia.
METHODS: Fish sampling was carried out at two sites: Jakarta as the disturbed site and Subang as the intact site; water quality was also measured at these sites. Land uses at the sites were interpreted using satellite imagery. Fish diversity was determined using the Shannon–Wiener index, rarefaction curve, and Lorenz graph. Principal component analysis, analysis of variance, and the x2-test were used to determine environmental factors that affected the fish community at both sites. Akaike’s information criterion was assigned to model the relationship between environmental factors and the fish community.
FINDINGS: Coasts characterized by anthropogenic disturbances and the absence of mangrove cover have a lower potential of hydrogen (pH) and reduced fish diversity by up to 53.91%. The intact site had higher fish diversity and made a greater contribution to conservation by providing habitats for fish species with the least concern and vulnerability statuses, according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List. From the AIC model, the decreasing water pH (AICc = 27.28) was the main determinant that reduces fish diversity at disturbed sites compared to dissolved oxygen (Akaike’s information criterion = 28.13) and salinity (Akaike’s information criterion = 29.95).
CONCLUSION: The coastal fish community was affected by differences in environmental factors, land uses, and mangrove cover driven by anthropogenic influences. The AIC model proved capable of assessing the effects of environmental factors on coastal fish communities. This study modeled environmental factors that should be managed and prioritized to restore and conserve the fish community along tropical coasts.

Graphical Abstract

Modeling the tropical fish community related to land uses and environmental determinants


  • The fish community tends to be homogenized in disturbed areas compared to intact areas.
  • Some species with vulnerable and least concern statuses were still found in both disturbed and intact areas.
  • Mangrove cover reduces the negative effects of land use on water quality.
  • The AIC model confirms that pH is the determining parameter related to the fish community.


Main Subjects


©2023 The author(s). This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit:


GJESM Publisher remains neutral concerning jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.


Google Scholar Scopus Web of Science PlumX Metrics Altmetrics Mendeley |


GJESM Publisher

Letters to Editor

GJESM Journal welcomes letters to the editor for the post-publication discussions and corrections which allows debate post publication on its site, through the Letters to Editor. Letters pertaining to manuscript published in GJESM should be sent to the editorial office of GJESM within three months of either online publication or before printed publication, except for critiques of original research. Following points are to be considering before sending the letters (comments) to the editor.

[1] Letters that include statements of statistics, facts, research, or theories should include appropriate references, although more than three are discouraged.
[2] Letters that are personal attacks on an author rather than thoughtful criticism of the author’s ideas will not be considered for publication.
[3] Letters can be no more than 300 words in length.
[4] Letter writers should include a statement at the beginning of the letter stating that it is being submitted either for publication or not.
[5] Anonymous letters will not be considered.
[6] Letter writers must include their city and state of residence or work.
[7] Letters will be edited for clarity and length.