1 Center for Paleolimnology (CPalim), Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang, Indonesia

2 Department Biology, Faculty Science and Mathematics, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang, Indonesia

3 School of Postgraduate Studies, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang, Indonesia

4 Department Biology, Faculty Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia

5 Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Andalas, Padang, Indonesia

6 Research Center for Limnology and Water Resources, National Research and Innovation Agency, Cibinong, Indonesia

7 Institute of Geological Sciences, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The lakeside has an enormous sediment carbon storage potential; however, it is susceptible to various environmental changes and can easily become a source of carbon emissions. Understanding the amount of carbon storage in lakeside sediments and organic matter sources may provide information about the potential of lakeside zones in climate change mitigation, particularly for sustainable lake management. This study aims to estimate sediment organic carbon stock and the sources of organic matter in the Maninjau Lakeside-West Sumatera, Indonesia.
METHODS: Sediment sampling was performed at five research sites, with a depth of 0–100 centimeters. Sediment samples were divided into 4 subsamples: 015; 1530; 3050; and 50100 centimeters. Bulk density and total nitrogen content were analyzed, and the percentage of organic carbon was calculated from the loss of ignition. The sediment organic carbon stock was calculated based on the bulk density and organic carbon content. Carbon per nitrogen ratio was also calculated to determine temporal changes in the sources of organic matter in the lake.
FINDINGS: This study demonstrated that Maninjau Lakeside has an enormous potential sedimentary organic carbon stock range between 284.23–442.59 megagrams per carbon per hectare. The highest total sediment carbon stock was found in Duo Koto (442.59 megagrams per carbon per hectare), with the lowest in Koto Kaciak (284.23 megagrams per carbon per hectare). In addition, the study’s results also exhibited significant differences in sediment organic carbon stocks at each location with different land use and cover; in this case, the forest area has a higher carbon stock value than the agricultural and settlement areas. Therefore, it is essential to take initiatives for the restoration and conservation of lakeside areas because of their essential role in mitigating the climate change. The mean ratio of organic carbon and total nitrogen was between 9.96 to 16.91, indicating that phytoplankton, a mixture of floating macrophytes, and submerged vegetation were the sources of organic matter.
CONCLUSION: In general, the value of sediment organic carbon stocks tends to be lower in locations with intensive agricultural settlements than in forest areas. This study emphasizes that restoring lakeside wetland is vital in increasing sediment organic carbon stocks and maintaining lake sustainability.

Graphical Abstract

Sediment organic carbon stocks in tropical lakes and its implication for sustainable lake management


  • Lakeside wetland ecosystem has a relatively large capacity to store carbon stocks, especially in sediments;
  • The different estimated SOC stock in lakeside indicates that the environmental conditions, land use, and land cover changes;
  • Carbon and nitrogen ratio indicates the source of organic matter from phytoplankton, submerged and floating macrophytes, or terrestrial plants
  • Restoration the lakeside wetland ecosystem is an important initiative, especially maintaining the sustainability of the water and lakeside environment;
  • Preserving and protecting lakeside wetland ecosystems can support global climate change mitigation through sequestration processes that can reduce carbon emissions in the atmosphere.


Main Subjects


©2023 The author(s). This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit:


GJESM Publisher remains neutral concerning jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affliations.


Google Scholar Scopus Web of Science PlumX Metrics Altmetrics Mendeley |


GJESM Publisher

Letters to Editor

GJESM Journal welcomes letters to the editor for the post-publication discussions and corrections which allows debate post publication on its site, through the Letters to Editor. Letters pertaining to manuscript published in GJESM should be sent to the editorial office of GJESM within three months of either online publication or before printed publication, except for critiques of original research. Following points are to be considering before sending the letters (comments) to the editor.

[1] Letters that include statements of statistics, facts, research, or theories should include appropriate references, although more than three are discouraged.
[2] Letters that are personal attacks on an author rather than thoughtful criticism of the author’s ideas will not be considered for publication.
[3] Letters can be no more than 300 words in length.
[4] Letter writers should include a statement at the beginning of the letter stating that it is being submitted either for publication or not.
[5] Anonymous letters will not be considered.
[6] Letter writers must include their city and state of residence or work.
[7] Letters will be edited for clarity and length.