School of Environmental Science, Universitas Indonesia, Central Jakarta, DKI Jakarta, Indonesia


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: From August to October 2019, several provinces in Sumatra and Kalimantan had faced severe forest fires, causing thousands of citizens to suffer respiratory disorders. This study aims to assess waste handling in palm oil plantation manage by smallholders and the correlation palm oil plantation waste handling with the fireland in Sumatera, especially on Jambi province.
METHODS: Primary data collection was conducted in September 2019, and a purposive random sampling method was used to select respondents. Primary data collection was applied for four hundred smallholders in five districts in Jambi using a mixed method.
FINDINGS: Out of 400 correspondents that handle their waste, 50% of respondents handle the residues by stacking the waste on their field, 25% of correspondents stack the waste between trees, 17.25% of correspondents stack the waste on piles, 5% of them bury the posts, and 2.75% incinerate the waste. The average distance from home to the field for 200 correspondents is 8.825 kilometres, and they have the highest harvest quantity with a mean of 1.0940 tons. Most of them are common smallholders and self-subsistent smallholders. The 298 correspondents join a farming association. About 50% of smallholders in Jambi handle the residues by stacking the wastes on their field instead of incinerating the waste.
CONCLUSION: Out of the overall samples collected in this study, only 2.75% smallholders in Jambi incinerate their residues. Hence, the fire breakouts happened on several provinces in Sumatera and Kalimantan in late 2019 did not happen due to crude palm oil waste-handling activities.
©2021 The author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, as long as the original authors and source are cited. No permission is required from the authors or the publishers.

Graphical Abstract

Palm oil plantation waste handling by smallholder and the correlation with the land fire


  • Palm oil smallholder in Jambi handle the palm oil plantation waste by stacking it on their field, rather than bury or incinerate it;
  • Smallholder methods in handling the palm oil plantation waste is influenced by the distance between their home and the plantation land, their productivity, smallholder type, and farming association;
  • Smallholder in Jambi not yet influenced by ISPO and RSPO certification for their decision to handle their palm oil plantation waste;
  • Smallholder methods to handle their waste is imperative to minimize land fire to happen.


Main Subjects

Adrianto, H.A.; Spracklen, D.V.; Arnold, S.R.; Sitanggang, I.S.; Syaufina, L., (2020). Forest and Land Fires Are Mainly Associated with Deforestation in Riau Province, Indonesia. Remote Sens., 12: 3 (12 pages).

Ahmad, F.B.; Zhang, Z.; Doherty, W.O.S.; O'Hara, I. M., (2019). The outlook of the production of advanced fuels and chemicals from integrated oil palm biomass biorefinery. Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 109: 386–411 (26 pages).

Anyaoha, K.E.; Sakrabani, R.; Patchigolla, K.; Mouazen, A.M., (2018). Critical evaluation of oil palm fresh fruit bunch solid wastes as soil amendments: Prospects and challenges. Resour., Conserv. Recycl., 136: 399–409 (11 pages).

Arvind, K.; Rajesh, M.K.; Josephrajkumar, A.; Grace, T., (2019). Dataset of de novo assembly and functional annotation of the transcriptome of certain developmental stages of coconut rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros L. Data in Brief, 28: 105036 (12 pages).

Awalludin, M.F.; Sulaiman, O.; Hashim, R.; Nadhari, W.N.A.W., (2015). An overview of the oil palm industry in Malaysia and its waste utilisation through thermochemical conversion, specifi cally via liquefaction. Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 50: 1469–1484 (16 pages).

Benami, E.; Curran, L. M.; Cochrane, M.; Venturieri, A.; Franco, R.; Kneipp, J.; Swartos, A., (2018). Oil palm land conversion in Par' a, Brazil, from 2006–2014: evaluating the 2010 Brazilian Sustainable Palm Oil Production Program. Environ. Res. Lett., 13(3) (13 pages).

Bessou, C.; Verwilghen, A.; Beaudoin-Ollivier, L.; Marichal, R.; Ollivier, J.; Baron, V.; Bonneau, X.; Carron, M.P.; Snoeck, D.; Naim, M.; Aryawan, A.A.K.; Raoul, F.; Giraudoux, P.; Surya, E.; Sihombing, E.; Caliman, J.P., (2017). Agroecological practices in oil palm plantations: examples from the field. OCL Journal, 24(3): D305 (16 pages).

Chiew, Y.L.; Shimada, S., (2013). Current state and environmental impact assessment for utilising oil palm empty fruit bunches for fuel, fiber and fertiliser - A case study of Malaysia. Biomass Bioenergy, 51: 109-124 (16 pages).

Chin, H.; Choong, W.; Alwi, S.R.W.; Mohammed, A.H., (2019). A PLS-MGA analysis of farming characteristics on the intentions of smallholder oil palm planters to collect palm residues for biofuel production. Biomass Bioenergy, 120: 404–416 (13 pages).

Chung, G.F., (2012). Effcet of Pests and Diseases on Oil Palm Yield. Palm Oil Production, Processing, Characterzation, and Uses, 163-210 (48 pages).

Cooper, H.V; Vane, CH; Evers, S.; Aplin, P; Girkin, N.T.; Sjogersten, S., (2019). From peat swamp forest to oil palm plantations: The stability of tropical peatland carbon. Geoderma, 342: 109-117 (8 pages).

de Almeida, A.S.; Vieira, I.C.G.; Ferraz, S.F.B., (2020). Long-term assessment of oil palm expansion and landscape change in the eastern Brazilian Amazon. Land Use Policy, 90: 104321 (8 pages).

Directorate General Plantation, (2019). Statistik Perkebunan Indonesia Tree Crop Estate Statistic of Indonesia 2018-2020. Jakarta: Sekretariat Direktorat Jendral Perkebunan.

Furumo, P.R.; Rueda, X.; Rodríguez, J.S.; Parés Ramos, I.K. (2020). Field evidence for positive certification outcomes on oil palm smallholder management practices in Colombia. J. Clean. Prod., 245: 118891 (16 pages).

Gatti, R.C.; Liang, J.; Vellichevskaya, A.; Zhou, M., (2019). Sustainable palm oil may not be so sustainable. Sci. Total Environ., 625: 48-51 (13 pages).

Goldstein, J.E.; Graham, L.; Ansori, S.; Vetrita, Y.; Thomas, A.; Applegate, G.; Vayda, A.P.; Saharjo, B. H.; Cochrane, M.A., (2020). Beyond slash‐and‐burn: The roles of human activities, altered hydrology and fuels in peat fires in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Singap. J. Trop. Geogr., 41: 190-208 (19 pages).

Hambali, E.; Rivai, M., (2017). The Potential of Palm Oil Waste Biomass in Indonesia in 2020 and 2030. IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci., 65: 012050 (10 pages).

Hamilton, R.; Stevenson, J.; Li, B.; Bijaksana, S., (2019). A 16,000-year record of climate, vegetation and fire from Wallacean lowland tropical forests. Quat. Sci. Rev., 224: 105929 (15 pages).

Hidayat, N.K.; Offermans, A.; Glasbergen, P., (2018). Sustainable palm oil as a public responsibility? On the governance capacity of Indonesian Standard for Sustainable Palm Oil (ISPO). Agr. Hum. Values, 35: 223–242 (20 pages).

Hosseini, S.E.; Wahid, M.A., (2014). Utilisation of palm solid residue as a source of renewable and sustainable energy in Malaysia. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Rev., 40: 621–632 (12 pages).

Huijnen, V.; Wooster, M. J.; Kaiser, J.W.; Gaveau, D.L.A.; Flemming, J.; Parrington, M.; Inness, A.; Murdiyarso, D.; Main, B.; van Weele, M., (2016). Fire carbon emissions over maritime Southeast Asia in 2015 largest since 1997. Sci. Rep., 6: 26886 (8 pages).

Hutabarat, S.; Slingerland, M.; Dries, L., (2019). Explaining the “Certification Gap” for Different Types of Oil Palm Smallholders in Riau Province, Indonesia. J. Environ. Dev., 28: 253–281 (29 pages).

Ibrahim, M.A., (2020). Risk of spontaneous and anthropogenic fires in waste management chain and hazards of secondary fires. Resour., Conserv. Recycl., 159: 104852 (11 pages).

Idris, S.S.; Rahman, N.A.; Ismail, K., (2012). Combustion characteristics of Malaysian oil palm biomass, sub-bituminous coal and their respective blends via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Bioresour. Technol., 123: 581–591 (11 pages).

Jaroenkietkajorn, U.; Gheewala, S. (2020). Interlinkage between Water-Energy-Food for Oil Palm Cultivation in Thailand. Sustain. Prod. Consum., 22: 205–217 (8 pages).

Jelsma, I.; Woittiez, L.S.; Ollivier, J.; Dharmawan, A.H., (2019). Do wealthy farmers implement better agricultural practices? An assessment of implementation of Good Agricultural Practices among different types of independent oil palm smallholders in Riau, Indonesia. Agric. Syst., 170: 63–76 (14 pages).

Mahidin; Saifullah; Erdiwansyah; Hamdani; Hisbullah; Hayati, A.P.; Zhafran, M.; Sidiq, M.A..; Rinaldi, A.; Fitria, B.; Tarisma, R.; Bindar, Y., (2020). Analysis of power from palm oil solid waste for biomass power plants: A case study in Aceh Province. Chemosphere, 253: 126714 (23 pages).

MenLHK, (2020). Rekapitulasi Luas Kebakaran Hutan dan Lahan (Ha) Per Provinsi Di Indonesia Tahun 2015-2020 (2 pages).

Mohammed, M.A.A.; Salmiaton, A.; Azlina, W.A.K.G.W.; Amran, M.S.M.; Fakhru’l-Razi, A.; Taufiq-Yap, Y.H., (2011). Hydrogen rich gas from oil palm biomass as a potential source of renewable energy in Malaysia. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Rev., 15: 1258–1270 (13 pages).

Nasution, M.A.; Wulandari, A.; Ahamed, T.; Noguchi, R., (2020). Alternative POME treatment technology in the implementation of roundtable on sustainable palm oil, Indonesian sustainable palm oil (ISPO), and Malaysian sustainable palm oil (MSPO) standards using LCA and AHP methods. Sustainability, 12: 4101 (16 pages).

Nair, K.P.P., (2010). Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacquin). The Agronomy and Economy of Important Tree Crops of the Developing World, 209-236 (27 pages).

Purnomo, H.; Okarda, B.; Dewayani, A.A.; Ali, M.; Chdiawan, R.; Kartodihardjo, H.; Pacheco, P.; Juniwaty, K.S., (2018). Reducing forest and land fires through good palm oil value chain governance. Forest Policy and Econ., 91: 940-106 (12 pages).

Prosperi, P.; Bloise, M.; Tubiello, F.N.; Conchedda, G.; Rossi, S.; Boschetti, L.; Salvatore, M.; Bernoux, M., (2020). New estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from biomass burning and peat fires using MODIS Collection 6 burned areas. Clim. Change, 1-18 (18 pages).

Nusadaily, (2020). Pelet dari Batang Kelapa Sawit Simpan Keuntungan Menggiurkan.

Rahman, A.; Khanam, T.; Pelkonen, T., (2017). People’s knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes towards stump harvesting for bioenergy production in Finland. Renew. Sustainable Energy Rev., 70: 107–116 (10 pages).

Saadun, N.; Lim, E.A.L.; Esa, S.M.; Ngu, F.; Awang, F.; Gimin, A.; Johari, I.H.; Firdaus, M.A.; Wagimin, N. I.; Azhar, B., (2018). Socio-ecological perspectives of engaging smallholders in environmental-friendly palm oil certification schemes. Land Use Policy, 72: 333–340 (8 pages).

Shojaei, S.; Ardakani, M.A.H.; Sodaiezadeh, H.; Jafari, M.; Afzali, S.F., (2019). Optimisation of parameters affecting organic mulch test to control erosion. J. Environ. Manage., 249: 109414 (11 pages).

Sulaiman, F.; Abdullah, N.; Gerhauser, H.; Shariff, H., (2010). A Perspective of Oil Palm and Its Wastes. J. Phys. Sci., 21: 67–77 (11 pages).

Truckell, I.G.; Shah, S.H.; Baillie, I.C.; Hallett, S.H.; Sakrabani, R., (2019). Soil and transport factors in potential distribution systems for biofertilisers derived from palm oil mill residues in Malaysia. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 166: 105005 (9 pages).

Uusitalo, V.; Vaisanen, S.; Havukainen, J.; Soukka, R.; Luoranen, M., (2014). Carbon footprint of renewable diesel from palm oil, jatropha oil and rapeseed oil. Renewable Energy, 69: 103-113 (10 pages).

Wu, Q.; Qiang, T.C.; Zeng, G.; Zhang, H.; Huang, Y.; Wang, Y., (2017). Sustainable and renewable energy from biomass wastes in palm oil industry: A case study in Malaysia. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 42(37): 23871-23877 (7 pages).

Zain, R., (2019). Kebun kelapa sawit dikesan terbakar.

Letters to Editor

GJESM Journal welcomes letters to the editor for the post-publication discussions and corrections which allows debate post publication on its site, through the Letters to Editor. Letters pertaining to manuscript published in GJESM should be sent to the editorial office of GJESM within three months of either online publication or before printed publication, except for critiques of original research. Following points are to be considering before sending the letters (comments) to the editor.

[1] Letters that include statements of statistics, facts, research, or theories should include appropriate references, although more than three are discouraged.
[2] Letters that are personal attacks on an author rather than thoughtful criticism of the author’s ideas will not be considered for publication.
[3] Letters can be no more than 300 words in length.
[4] Letter writers should include a statement at the beginning of the letter stating that it is being submitted either for publication or not.
[5] Anonymous letters will not be considered.
[6] Letter writers must include their city and state of residence or work.
[7] Letters will be edited for clarity and length.