1 Department of Environmental Engineering Faculty of Engineering Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia

2 Center Science and Technology, IAIN Surakarta, Pandawa, Pucangan, Kartasura, Indonesia


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Urban intensity and activities produce a large amount of biodegradable municipal solid waste. Therefore, biodrying processing was adopted to ensure the conversion into Refuse Derived Fuel and greenhouse gases.
METHODS: This study was performed at a greenhouse, using six biodrying reactors made from acrylic material, and equipped with digital temperature recording, blower, and flow meters. The variations in airflow (0, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 L/min/kg) and the bulking agent (15%) were used to evaluate calorific value, degradation process and GHG emissions.
FINDINGS: The result showed significant effect of airflow variation on cellulose content and calorific value. Furthermore, the optimum value was 6 L/min/kg, producing a 10.05% decline in cellulose content, and a 38.17% increase in calorific value. Also, the water content reduced from 69% to 40%. The CH4 concentration between control and biodrying substantially varied at 2.65 ppm and 1.51 ppm respectively on day 0 and at peak temperature. Morever, the value of N2O in each control was about 534.69 ppb and 175.48 ppb, while the lowest level was recorded after biodrying with 2 L/min/kg airflow.
CONCLUSION: The calorific value of MSW after biodrying (refuse derived fuel) ranges from 4,713 – 6,265 cal/g. This is further classified in the low energy coal (brown coal) category, equivalent to <7,000 cal/g. Therefore, the process is proven to be a suitable alternative to achieve RDF production and low GHG emissions.
©2021 The author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, as long as the original authors and source are cited. No permission is required from the authors or the publishers.

Graphical Abstract

Calorific and greenhouse gas emission in municipal solid waste treatment using biodrying


  • The biodrying process can increase calorific value of Municipal Solid Waste and reduce greenhouse gas emissions;
  • The calorific value of Refuse Derived Fuel can be classified in brown coal category, which is equal to <7,000 cal/g;
  • Biodrying process can reduce CO2 emissions by 13 times compared to without biodrying.


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