1 The University of Danang - University of Science and Education, Le Duan Road, Danang 550000, Vietnam

2 Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Ecology and Sustainability, College of Environmental Studies, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien 97401, Taiwan

3 International Bachelor Degree Program in Finance, College of Management, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The sheer volume of electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) has presently been generated in Vietnam, posing a growing concern regarding its impact can have on the environment and human health. Therefore, the need for developing policies and regulations towards the environmentally sound management of e-waste is becoming crucial. Although the municipalities play an important role in e-waste recycling program, there does not appear to be any study involving residents’ perceptions on e-waste management. This paper aims to examine the influencing factors of end users’ willingness to pay and their payment preferences toward e-waste recycling. 
METHODS: The logistic regression model was employed to analyze a qualified data set collected through a personal interview survey in Danang city, Vietnam. All analyses were conducted using Statistical Package for Social Sciences software (version 22.0). 
FINDINGS: The results revealed that the end users’ willingness to participate in recycling programs, laws and regulations, inconvenience of recycling and past experience were four key determinants significantly contributing to the willingness to pay for recycling e-waste. With regards recycling payment methods, most of the participants (36%) were in favor of deposit and refund scheme, while pre-disposal fees and advanced recycling fees came in second and third place (25.8% and 21%, respectively), making monthly payment of recycling fees the least preferred (10.2%). 
CONCLUSION: These findings may provide policy-makers with crucial information for better e-waste management policy development, which helps address the conflict between development and conservation, may be applicable in Vietnam and other countries as well.
©2021 The author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, as long as the original authors and source are cited. No permission is required from the authors or the publishers.

Graphical Abstract

Willingness of end users to pay for e-waste recycling


  • End users’ willingness to pay for e-waste recycling is influenced by their willingness to participate in recycling programs, laws and regulations, inconvenience of recycling and past experience; 
  • The deposit and refund scheme is proved to be the most favorite payment method toward e-waste recycling, followed by the pre-disposal fees, advanced recycling, and monthly payment; 
  • Future legislation targeting to an e-waste recycling policy should emphasize the responsibility of end users and a need to have a cooperation mechanism amongst various related stakeholders; 
  • It is important to integrate DRS in extended producer responsibility implementation, aiming to stimulate resident’s engagement in e-waste collection, and promote return and reuse, in turn, boosting recycling rates.


Main Subjects

Afroz, R.; Masud, M.M.; Akhtar, R.Duasa, J.B., (2013). Survey and analysis of public knowledge, awareness and willingness to pay in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia–a case study on household WEEE management. J. Clean. Prod., 52: 185-193 (9 pages).

Anderson, R.C.; Lohof, A.Q., (1997). The United States Experience with Economic Incentives in Environmental Pollution Control Policy. Environmental Law Institute (in cooperation with United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

Baldé, C.P.; Forti, V.; Gray, V.; Kuehr, R.; Stegmann, P., (2017). The Global E-waste Monitor 2017: Quantities, Flows, and Resources. United Nations University (UNU), Bonn/Geneva/Vienna.

Balde, C.P.; Wang, F.; Kuehr, R.; Huisman, J., (2015). The global e-waste monitor 2014: Quantities, flows and resources. UNU-IAS institute for the Advanced study sustainability, Bonn, Germany.

BCRCSEA, (2016). Study on E-Waste Management in ASEAN Countries.  Workshop 2016 of the Asian Network for Prevention of Illegal Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes. Semarang, Indonesia.

Bhat, V.; Patil, Y., (2014). E-waste consciousness and disposal practices among residents of Pune city. Procedia Soc. Behav. Sci., 133: 491-498 (8 pages).

Cai, K.; Song, Q.; Peng, S.; Yuan, W.; Liang, Y.; Li, J., (2019). Uncovering residents’ behaviors, attitudes, and WTP for recycling e-waste: a case study of Zhuhai city, China. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 27(2): 2386-2399 (14 pages).

Dwivedy, M.; Mittal, R.K., (2013). Willingness of residents to participate in e-waste recycling in India. Environ. Dev., 6: 48-68 (21 pages).

GSO, (2019). Statistical yearbook of Vietnam 2018. General Statistics Office, Vietnam.

Hai, H.T.; Hung, H.V.; Quang, N.D., (2017). An overview of electronic waste recycling in Vietnam. J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manage., 19(1): 536-544 (9 pages).

Hair, J.F., (2010). Multivariate data analysis : a global perspective. Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, N.J.; London.

Honda, S.; Khetriwal, D.; Kuehr, R., (2016). Regional E-waste Monitor: East and Southeast Asia. United Nations University ViE–SCYCLE, Bonn, Germany.

Huynh, T.H., (2014) Electric and Electronic Waste Recycling in Vietnam. 4th International E-waste Management Network. Hanoi, Vietnam.

Islam, M.T.; Abdullah, A.B.; Shahir, S.A.; Kalam, M.A.; Masjuki, H.H.; Shumon, R.; Rashid, M.H., (2016). A public survey on knowledge, awareness, attitude and willingness to pay for WEEE management: Case study in Bangladesh. J. Clean. Prod., 137: 728-740 (13 pages).

Le, V.K.; Tran, M.C.; Pham, M.C. (2012) Assessment of E-Waste Collection Model in Ho Chi Minh City. The 5th AUN/SEED-Net Regional Conference on Global Environment. Bandung, Indonesia.

Nduneseokwu, C.K.; Qu, Y.; Appolloni, A., (2017). Factors influencing consumers’ intentions to participate in a formal e-waste collection system: A case study of Onitsha, Nigeria. Sustainability, 9(6): 881 (17 pages).

Nguyen, D.-Q.; Ha, V.-H.; Eiji, Y.; Huynh, T.-H., (2017). Material Flows from Electronic Waste: Understanding the Shortages for Extended Producer Responsibility Implementation in Vietnam. Procedia CIRP, 61: 651-656 (6 pages).

Nguyen, D.-Q.; Yamasue, E.; Okumura, H.; Ishihara, K.N., (2009). Use and disposal of large home electronic appliances in Vietnam. J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manage., 11(4): 358-366 (9 pages).

Nguyen, T.T.H.; Hung, R.-J.; Lee, C.-H; Nguyen, T.T.H., (2018). Determinants of Residents’ E-Waste Recycling Behavioral Intention: A Case Study from Vietnam. 11(1): 164 (24 pages).

Nixon, H.; Saphores, J.-D.M., (2007). Financing electronic waste recycling Californian households’ willingness to pay advanced recycling fees. J. Environ. Manage., 84(4): 547-559 (13 pages).

Nixon, H.; Saphores, J.-D.M.; Ogunseitan, O.A.; Shapiro, A.A., (2009). Understanding Preferences for Recycling Electronic Waste in California: The influence of environmental attitudes and beliefs on willingness to pay. Environ. Behav., 41(1): 101-124 (24 pages).

Nnorom, I.; Ohakwe, J.; Osibanjo, O., (2009). Survey of Willingness of Residents to Participate in Electronic Waste Recycling in Nigeria - A case study of mobile phone recycling. J. Clean. Prod., 17(18): 1629-1637 (9 pages).

Roldan, J.M.; Gibby, A., (2018) Developing an e-waste national policy and regulatory framework for Malawi.  Internatonal Telecommunicaton Union (ITU), Switzerland.

Saphores, J.-D.; Nixon, H.; Ogunseitan, O.; Shapiro, A., (2006). Household Willingness to Recycle Electronic Waste: An Application to California. Environ. Behav., 38(2): 183-208 (26 pages).

Saphores, J.-D.M.; Ogunseitan, O.A.; Shapiro, A.A., (2012). Willingness to engage in a pro-environmental behavior: An analysis of e-waste recycling based on a national survey of U.S. households. Resour. Conserv. Recycl., 60: 49-63 (15 pages).

Song, Q.; Wang, Z.Li, J., (2012). Residents' behaviors, attitudes, and willingness to pay for recycling e-waste in Macau. J. Environ. Manage., 106: 8-16 (9 pages).

Tran, C.D.; Salhofer, S.P., (2016). Analysis of recycling structures for e-waste in Vietnam. J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manage., 20: 110-126 (17 pages).

Truong, M.T., (2014). Current status of e-waste in Vietnam and future goals, Hanoi, Vietnam. Vietnam Environment Administration.

Uwasu, M.; Naito, T.; Yabar, H.; Hara, K., (2013). Assessment of Japanese recycling policies for home electric appliance: Cost-effectiveness analysis and socioeconomic and technological implications. Environ. Dev., 6: 21-33 (13 pages).

Vassanadumrongdee, S.; Kittipongvises, S., (2018). Factors influencing source separation intention and willingness to pay for improving waste management in Bangkok, Thailand. Sustain. Environ. Res., 28(2): 90-99 (10 pages).

Walls, M., (2011). Deposit-refund systems in practice and theory. Resources for the Future. Washington, DC.

Wang, Z.; Guo, D.; Wang, X., (2016). Determinants of residents' e-waste recycling behaviour intentions: Evidence from China. J. Clean. Prod., 137: 850-860 (11 pages).

Wang, Z.; Zhang, B.; Yin, J.; Zhang, X., (2011). Willingness and behavior towards e-waste recycling for residents in Beijing city, China. J. Clean. Prod., 19(9-10): 977-984 (8 pages).

Yin, J.; Gao, Y.; Xu, H., (2014). Survey and analysis of consumers' behaviour of waste mobile phone recycling in China. J. Clean. Prod., 65: 517-525 (9 pages).

Yoshida, A.; Terazono, A.; Ballesteros, F.C.; Nguyen, D.-Q.; Sukandar, S.; Kojima, M.; Sakata, S., (2016). E-waste recycling processes in Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam: a case study of cathode ray tube TVs and monitors. Resour. Conserv. Recycl., 106: 48-58 (11 pages).

Yu, L.; He, W.; Li, G.; Huang, J.; Zhu, H., (2014). The development of WEEE management and effects of the fund policy for subsidizing WEEE treating in China. Waste Manage., 34(9): 1705-1714 (10 pages).

Letters to Editor

GJESM Journal welcomes letters to the editor for the post-publication discussions and corrections which allows debate post publication on its site, through the Letters to Editor. Letters pertaining to manuscript published in GJESM should be sent to the editorial office of GJESM within three months of either online publication or before printed publication, except for critiques of original research. Following points are to be considering before sending the letters (comments) to the editor.

[1] Letters that include statements of statistics, facts, research, or theories should include appropriate references, although more than three are discouraged.
[2] Letters that are personal attacks on an author rather than thoughtful criticism of the author’s ideas will not be considered for publication.
[3] Letters can be no more than 300 words in length.
[4] Letter writers should include a statement at the beginning of the letter stating that it is being submitted either for publication or not.
[5] Anonymous letters will not be considered.
[6] Letter writers must include their city and state of residence or work.
[7] Letters will be edited for clarity and length.