1 Department of Technical-Vocational and Livelihood Education, College of Teacher Education, Mariano Marcos State University, Laoag City, Philippines

2 Department of Secondary Education, College of Teacher Education, Mariano Marcos State University, Laoag City, Philippines

3 Department of Early Childhood and Special Needs Education, College of Teacher Education, Mariano Marcos State University, Laoag City, Philippines


This study examined the waste management beliefs and practices of selected households in a Philippine rural municipality.  The sample used for this study involved rural families comprising of 332 households, which was drawn from the population using multistage cluster unequal allocation sampling technique. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze data gathered. Findings show that households encountered many problems when it comes to practicing traditional and modern ways of solid waste management. Moreover, it was revealed that participants were ill-informed about the various aspects of waste management, and that there was little reuse and recycling of waste materials among the households. In terms of the participants’ solid waste management beliefs, their ratings yielded a score of 1.08, which means that they generally have positive beliefs towards managing household wastes. When it comes to their practices, participants obtained a score of 2.59, suggesting that the selected households apply, to certain degrees, various acceptable waste disposal measures. Nevertheless, they also demonstrated beliefs and practices that were not environment friendly. From these findings, this study proposed a plan of solid waste management activities for households, which was collaboratively assessed by local government authorities. The proposed plan was unanimously accepted by the evaluators, who approved of the intervention’s wide-scale implementation in the province. A number of significant implications were offered in this study, such as conducting community workshops and campaigns for the effective management of solid wastes.

Graphical Abstract

Solid waste management beliefs and practices in rural households towards sustainable development and pro-environmental citizenship


  • Respondents reported that insufficiency of facilities for recycling, nonchalant attitude among people and limited knowledge of people are the topmost problems in solid waste management;
  • Respondents generally have positive evaluation on their beliefs about SWM, and emphasized that waste prevention and/or reduction in the household is their responsibility;
  • In terms of their SWM practices, respondents usually apply acceptable waste disposal measures, but, in some cases, also perform practices that are not environmental friendly;
  • Sustainable SWM strategies or activities were proposed to develop positive SWM beliefs among community members and capacitate them to apply acceptable SWM practices.


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