1 School of Environmental Science, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia

2 Department of Management, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, West Java, Indonesia


This study aims to understand influential factors for Jakarta’s residents to participate in a formal electronic waste recycling programme. It questions the efficacy of providing facilities to collect electronic waste despite the lack of legislated regulations or policies. Using the goal-framing theory as a foundation, a survey conducted on 208 respondents in 2018 revealed that selling obsolete electronic devices to peddlers or retaining them at home were standard practices in society, and only 2% of respondents recycled their electronic waste at formal facilities. The results show that electronic waste recycling intention correlates highest with information and convenience, 0.521 and 0.411, respectively. While knowledge has the least correlative value with attitude and intention, that is 0.204 and 0.240.  It clarifies that the normative goal is weaker than hedonic and gain goals. Respondents had enough awareness about the hazards of electronic waste. However, their behaviour did not exhibit it. It is imperative to lessen the gap between normative and hedonic goals by campaigning continuously and place the facilities at easily accessible locations to increase recycling participation. Furthermore, collecting electronic waste requires a collaboration between the government and electronics businesses, and must be supported by a legal framework.

Graphical Abstract

Underlying factors behind the low participation rate in electronic waste recycling


  • Participation in e-waste recycling relates better with the programme information and access to facilities than knowledge of e-waste;
  • Recycling was mainly motivated by gain and hedonic goals rather than normative goal;
  • A regulation and collaboration with electronic business are imperative for effective e-waste collection system.


Main Subjects

Akhtar, R.; Masud, M.M.; Afroz, R., (2014). Household perception and recycling behaviour on electronic waste management: a case study of Kuala-Lumpur, Malaysia. Malaysian J. Sci., 33: 32–41 (10 pages).

Awasthi, A.K.; Li, J., (2018). Assessing resident awareness on e-waste management in Bangalore, India: a preliminary case study. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 11: 11163–11172 (10 pages).

Baldé, C.P.; Forti, V.; Gray, V.; Kuehr, R.; Stegmann, P., (2017). The global e-waste monitor-2017. United Nations University (UNU), International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and International  Solid Waste Association (ISWA); Bonn/Geneva/Vienna (116 pages).

Borthakur, A.; Govind, M., (2017). Emerging trends in consumers’ e-waste disposal behaviour  and awareness: a worldwide overview with special focus on India. Resour. Conserv. Recycl., 117: 102–113 (12 pages).

BPS, (2018a). Statistical yearbook of Indonesia 2018. BPS-Statistics Indonesia (762 pages).

BPS, (2018b). Kecamatan tanah abang dalam angka 2018 [Tanah abang district in numbers 2018]. BPS-Statistics of Jakarta Pusat (130 pages).

Chen, M.; Ogunseitan, O.A.; Duan, H.; Zeng, X.; Li, J., (2018). China e-waste management: struggling for future success. Resour. Conserv. Recycl., 139: 48–49  (2 pages).

Dai, Y.; Huo, X.; Zhang, Y.; Yang, T.; Li, M.; Xu, X., (2017). Elevated lead levels and changes in blood morphology and erythrocyte CR1 in preschool children from an e-waste area. Sci. Total Environ., 592: 51–59  (9 pages).

Deng, W.J.; Giesy, J.P.; So, C.S.; Zheng, H.L., (2017). End-of-life (EoL) mobile phone management in Hong Kong households. J.Environ. Manag. , 200: 22-28 (7 pages).

Du, Y.; Wang, Y.; Du, L.; Xu, C.; Ji, K.; Wang, J.; Liu, Q., (2018). Cytogenetics data in adult men involved in the recycling of electronic wastes. Data Br., 17: 1405–1416 (12 pages).

Echegaray, F.; Hansstein, F.V., (2017). Assessing the intention-behaviour gap in electronic waste recycling: the case of Brazil. J. Cleaner Prod., 142: 180–190 (11 pages).

Garlapati, V.K., (2016). E-waste in India and developed countries: management, recycling, business, and biotechnological initiatives. Renew. Sust. Energy Rev., 54: 874–881 (8 pages).

Government of Indonesia, (1999). Peraturan pemerintah nomor 18 tahun 1999 tentang pengelolaan limbah bahan berbahaya dan beracun [Government regulation no.18 of 1999 on management of hazardous  and  toxic waste]. Jakarta, Indonesia. (36 pages).

Government of Indonesia, (2008). Undang-undang nomor 18 tahun 2008 tentang pengelolaan sampah [Law no.18 of 2008 on waste management]. Jakarta, Indonesia (28 pages).

Government of Indonesia, (2014). Peraturan pemerintah no.101 tahun 2014 tentang pengelolaan limbah bahan berbahaya dan beracun [Government regulation no.101 of 2014 on management of hazardous and toxic waste]. Jakarta, Indonesia (150 pages).

Herat, S.; Agamuthu, P., (2012). E-waste: a problem or an opportunity? review of issues, challenges, and solutions in Asian countries. Waste Manage. Res., 30(11): 1113–1129 (17 pages).

Jafari, A.; Heydari, J.; Keramati, A., (2015). Factors affecting incentive dependency of residents to participate in e-waste recycling: a case study on adoption of e-waste reverse supply chain in Iran. Environ. Dev. Sustain., 19(1): 325-338 (14 pages). 

Jensen, H.; Gaw, S.; Lehto, N.J.;  Hassall, L.; Robinson, B.H., (2018). The mobility and plant uptake of gallium and indium, two emerging contaminants associated with electronic waste and other sources. Chemosphere, 209: 675–684 (10 pages).

Julander, A.;  Lundgren, L.; Skare, L.; Grandér, M.;  Palm, B.; Vahter, M.;  Lidén, C., (2014). Formal recycling of e-waste leads to increased exposure to toxic metals: an occupational exposure study from Sweden. Environ. Int., 73: 243–251 (9 pages).

Kiddee, P.;  Naidu, R.; Wong, M.H., (2013). Electronic waste management approaches: an overview. Waste Manage., 33(5): 1237–1250 (14 pages).

Li, J.; Liu, L.; Ren, J.; Duan, H.; Zheng, L., (2012). Behaviour of urban residents toward the discarding of waste electrical and electronic equipment: a case study in Baoding, China. Waste Manage. Res., 30(11): 1187–1197 (11 pages).

Lindenberg, S.;  Steg L., (2007). Normative, gain and hedonic goal frames guiding environmental behaviour. J. Soc. Issues, 63(1): 117–137 (21 pages).

Manomaivibool, P., (2009). Extended producer responsibility in a non-OECD context: the management of waste electrical and electronic equipment in India. Resour. Conserv. Recycl., 53(3): 136–144 (9 pages).

Nduneseokwu, C.K.; Qu, Y.;  Appolloni, A., (2017). Factors influencing consumers’ intentions to participate in a formal e-waste collection system: a case study of Onitsha, Nigeria. Sustainability, 9(6): 881–897 (17 pages).  

Nowakowski, P., (2016). The influence of residents’ behaviour on waste electrical and electronic equipment collection effectiveness. Waste Manage. Res., 34(11): 1126–1135 (10 pages).

OECD, (2001). Extended producer responsibility, a guidance manual for governments. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (159  pages).

Olowu, D., (2012). Menace of e-wastes in developing countries: an agenda for legal and policy responses. Law Environ. Dev. J., 8: 61–75 (15 pages).

Osibanjo, O.; Nnorom, I.C., (2007). The challenge of electronic waste (e-waste) management in developing countries. Waste Manage. Res., 25(6): 489–501 (13 pages).

Otto, S.; Kibbe, A.; Henn, L.; Hentschke, L.; Kaiser, F.G., (2018). The economy of e-waste collection at the individual level: a practice oriented approach of categorizing determinants of e-waste collection into behavioral costs and motivation. J. Cleaner Prod., 204: 33–40 (8 pages).

Pascale, A.; Sosa, A.; Bares, C.; Battocletti, A.; Moll, M.J.; Pose, D.; Laborde, A.; González, H.; Feola, G., (2016). E-waste informal recycling: an emerging source of lead exposure in South America. Ann. Glob. Health, 82(1): 197–201 (5 pages).

Roy S., (2016). Anatomizing the dynamics of societal behaviour towards e-waste management and recycling initiatives: a case study of Kolkata, India. Manage. Labour Stud., 41(1): 1–18 (18 pages).

Ruliana, V.; Soemantojo, R.W.; Asteria, D., (2019). Assessing a community-based waste separation program through examination of correlations between participation, information exposure, environmental knowledge, and environmental attitude. ASEAN J. Comm. Engage., 3(1): 1-27 (27 pages).

Saphores, J.D.M.; Ogunseitan, O.A.; Shapiro A.A., (2012). Willingness to engage in a pro-environmental behavior: an analysis of e-waste recycling based on a national survey of U.S. households. Resour. Conserv. Recycl., 60: 49–63 (15 pages).

Steg, L.; Bolderdijk, J.W.; Keizer, K.; Perlaviciute, G.,(2014). An integrated framework for encouraging pro-environmental behaviour: the role of values, situational factors, and goals. J. Environ. Psychol., 38: 104–115 (12 pages).

Sthiannopkao, S.; Wong, M.H., (2013). Handling e-waste in developed and developing countries: initiatives, practices, and consequences. Sci. Total Environ., 463–464: 1147–53 (7 pages).

Sulami, A.P.N.; Murayama, T.; Nishikizawa, S., (2018). Current issues and situation of producer responsibility in waste management in Indonesia. Environ. Nat. Resour. J., 16(1): 70–81 (12 pages).

Tan, Q.; Duan, H.; Liu, L.; Yang, J.; Li, J., (2018). Rethinking residential consumers’ behavior in discarding obsolete mobile phones in China. J. Cleaner Prod., 195: 1228–1236 (9 pages).

Tansel, B., (2017). From electronic consumer products to e-wastes: global outlook, waste quantities, recycling challenges. Environ. Int., 98: 35–45 (11 pages).

UNEP, (2007). E-waste volume II: e-waste management manual. Osaka: United Nations Environment Programme; UNEP-DTE (128 pages).

Wang, Z.; Zhang, B.;  Yin, J.; Zhang, X., (2011). Willingness and behavior towards e-waste recycling for residents in Beijing city, China. J. Cleaner Prod., 19: 977–984 (8 pages).

Wang, Z.; Guo, D.; Wang, X., (2016). Determinants of residents’ e-waste recycling behaviour intentions: evidence from China. J. Cleaner Prod.,  137: 850–860  (11 pages).

Wang, Z.; Guo, D.; Wang, X.; Zhang, B.; Wang B., (2018). How does information publicity influence residents’ behaviour intentions around e-waste recycling? Resour. Conserv. Recycl., 133: 1–9 (9 pages).

Zeng, Z.; Huo, X.; Zhang, Y.; Xiao, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Xu, X., (2018). Lead exposure is associated with risk of impaired coagulation in preschool children from an e-waste recycling area. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 25: 20670–20679 (10 pages).

Letters to Editor

GJESM Journal welcomes letters to the editor for the post-publication discussions and corrections which allows debate post publication on its site, through the Letters to Editor. Letters pertaining to manuscript published in GJESM should be sent to the editorial office of GJESM within three months of either online publication or before printed publication, except for critiques of original research. Following points are to be considering before sending the letters (comments) to the editor.

[1] Letters that include statements of statistics, facts, research, or theories should include appropriate references, although more than three are discouraged.
[2] Letters that are personal attacks on an author rather than thoughtful criticism of the author’s ideas will not be considered for publication.
[3] Letters can be no more than 300 words in length.
[4] Letter writers should include a statement at the beginning of the letter stating that it is being submitted either for publication or not.
[5] Anonymous letters will not be considered.
[6] Letter writers must include their city and state of residence or work.
[7] Letters will be edited for clarity and length.