1 Department of Marine Pollution, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Alexandria, Egypt

2 Ningxia Institute of Remote Sensing Surveying and Mapping, Yinchuan 750021 China


Flash flood has been increasing in the Khartoum area, Sudan due to geographical conditions and climatic change as heavy rainfall and high temperature, therefore the present work tried to estimate the sensitivity of flash flood. The present work proposes an advanced technique of flood sensitivity mapping using the method of analytical hierarchy process. Ten factors as elevation, slope, distance from the network, land use, density of the drainage, flow accumulation, surface roughness, stream power index, topographic wetness index and curvature of the topography were digitized and then contributed in the mapping of Flash flood. Remote sensing data were integrated with analytical hierarchy process to determine the flood sensitive area in Sudan. The model was applied and completed as the consistency ratio was mostly reasonable (< 0.1). Based on the proposed model, about 75.56 Km2 (12.26 %), 156.14 Km2 (25.33%), 169.89 Km2 (27.56 %), 141.40 Km2 (22.94 %) and 73.50 Km2 (11.92 %); were classified as no susceptible, low susceptible, high susceptible, moderate susceptible and very highly susceptible to flooding. The present study showed a high variation in flood sensitivity due to climatic change and geographic condition. This index can be modified and applied in areas of the same characteristics of climatic conditions as one of the main recommendation in the study area. The study showed that poor infrastructure and lack of preparedness were the main causes of the disaster of flood in Sudan. This study merely demonstrated the critical analysis of geospatial mapping in proper mitigating, sustainable development and great monitoring the negative effects of flooding along the Khartoum region to reduce hazards of flood. 

Graphical Abstract

Environmental sensitivity of flash flood hazard using geospatial techniques


  • Flash flood has been increasing in Khartoum area, Sudan due to geographical conditions and climatic change;
  • The town of Al-Jili, north of Khartoum was hit by torrential floods that swept the area from the east after the demolition of part of the earth barrier around the city;
  • Vulnerable areas can cause high destruction of the social and economic network and lead to the loss of human life;
  • Majority of the high susceptibility area to flooding concentrated in the northern part of the study area where the grassland occupies these areas.


Main Subjects

Letters to Editor

GJESM Journal welcomes letters to the editor for the post-publication discussions and corrections which allows debate post publication on its site, through the Letters to Editor. Letters pertaining to manuscript published in GJESM should be sent to the editorial office of GJESM within three months of either online publication or before printed publication, except for critiques of original research. Following points are to be considering before sending the letters (comments) to the editor.

[1] Letters that include statements of statistics, facts, research, or theories should include appropriate references, although more than three are discouraged.
[2] Letters that are personal attacks on an author rather than thoughtful criticism of the author’s ideas will not be considered for publication.
[3] Letters can be no more than 300 words in length.
[4] Letter writers should include a statement at the beginning of the letter stating that it is being submitted either for publication or not.
[5] Anonymous letters will not be considered.
[6] Letter writers must include their city and state of residence or work.
[7] Letters will be edited for clarity and length.