1 Department of Entrepreneurship and Business, Kyiv National University of Technologies and Design, Kyiv, Ukraine

2 National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine


This study seeks to provide insights on understanding the contemporary problems of energy efficiency in Ukrainian universities by developing a comprehensive energy efficiency management framework that encompasses its participating subjects, objects and key drivers along with suggesting its implementation mechanism and tools. Emphasis should be given that the current situation of inefficient and irrational consumption of energy resources within the system of higher education in Ukraine challenges the development of an integrative approach to energy saving and energy efficiency management. It is argued that the key elements of this integrative approach to energy management are energy auditing, energy certification and energy monitoring based on the consistent use of ISO 9000 international standards. Over the last 10 years energy consumption in Ukrainian higher education institutions against the world best practice exceed by 30-40%. This triggers a critical need to building an integrative approach to energy saving and energy efficiency management. The findings revealed that disincentives reduce the degree of energy efficiency by 25%. Constructing energy profiles by a hierarchical clustering method demonstrated that 68% of the campus buildings belong to a 5th class out of 7, i. e. being highly energy intensive. Following the DGNB (German Sustainable Building Council) approach to evaluate energy efficiency has enabled to eliminate 17% of the G category classrooms (extra energy intensive) from the University heating facilities. The clustering method to assess 15 University buildings by 16 performance indicators identified 5 clusters in terms of energy consumption and energy efficiency.

Graphical Abstract


Calibration of 15 University buildings by the method of cluster analysis according to 16 evaluation indicators identified 5 clusters in terms of energy consumption and energy efficiency; 

The energy audit removed 17 % of lecture-rooms of university from the heating fund of G category; 

The construction of energy profiles using the dendogram method found that 68% of university buildings were energy-consuming and high energy-consuming; 

Energy certification of apartments according to ISO 50001: 2018 standard increased energy efficiency of university by 13%.


Main Subjects

Abidin N.I.A.; Zakaria R.; Mohd Pauzi N.N.; Al Qaifi G.N.; Sahamir S.R.; Shamsudin S.M., (2017). Energy efficiency initiatives in a campus building. Chem. Eng. Trans., 56: 1-6 (6 pages).

Abidin, N.I.; Zakaria, R.;  Aminuddin, E.; Hamid, A.R.;  Munikanan,V.; Sahamir, S.R.;  Shamsuddin, S.M., (2017). Factor analysis on criteria affecting lean retrofit for energy efficient initiatives in higher learning Institution buildings. The 6th International Conference of Euro Asia Civil Engineering Forum (EACEF 2017). 138 (13 pages).

Alshuwaikhat, H.M.; Abubakar, I., (2008). An integrated approach to achieving Campus sustainability: assessment of the current Campus environmental management practices. J. Cleaner Product., 16: 1777-1785 (9 pages).

Anders, S., (2012). DGNB Zertifizierungssystem: Neubau gemischte Stadtquartiere. Manfred SCHRENK. 211-219 (9 pages).

Appleby, P., (2013). Sustainable retrofit and facilities management. 1st edition. Oxford, United Kingdom. Routledge.

Ascione, F.; Borrelli, M.; De Masi, R.; Filippo, R.; Giuseppe, P., (2019). Energy refurbishment of a University building in cold Italian backcountry. Part 1: Audit and calibration of the numerical model. Energy Procedia. 159: 2-9 (7 pages).

Ascione, F.; Borrelli, M.; De Masi, R.; Filippo R.; Giuseppe P. (2019). Energy refurbishment of a University building in cold Italian backcountry. Part 2: Sensitivity studies and optimization. Energy Procedia. 159: 10-15 (6 pages).

Bikshapathi, V., (2011). Impact of ISO certification on TQM practices in small and medium enterprises. Int. J. Multidi. Res., 1(8): 403-418 (16 pages).

Chan, A.L.S.; Chow, T.T., (2014). Evaluation of overall thermal transfer value (OTTV) for commercial buildings constructed with green roof. Appl. Energy, 107: 10–24 (25 pages).

Chun, W., (2019). Energy consumption in elementary and high schools in Taiwan. J. Cleaner Product., 227: 1107-1111 (12 pages).

Denysiuk, S;  Borychenko, O., (2013). Integrated energy management systems as a basis for building a modern policy of energy efficiency of higher education institutions, Bulletin of the Kiev National University Technol. Design, 6 (74): 212–220 (9 pages).

Eriksson, R.; Nenonen, S.; Junghans, A.; Nielsen, S. B.; Lindahl, G., (2015). Nordic Campus retrofitting concepts scalable practices. Procedia Econ. Finance. 21(15): 329–336 (8 pages).

Escobedo, A.; Briceño, S.; Juárez H.; Castillo, D.; Imaz M.; Sheinbaum, C., (2014). Energy consumption and GHG emission scenarios of a University campus in Mexico. Energy Sustainable Develop., 18(1): 49–57 (9 pages).

Fomichov, E.; Besarab, O., (2013). Creation of an energy management system at the Odessa National Polytechnic University, Bulletin of the Kiev National University Technol. Design, 6(74): 220–224 (5 pages).

Ganushchak–Yefimenkо, L.; Shcherbak, V.; Nifatova, О., (2017). Managing a project of competitive–integrative benchmarking of higher educational institutions. East. Eur. J. Enterp. Technol., 3(87): 38–47 (10 pages).

Gong, X.; Akashi, Y.; Sumiyoshi, D., (2012). Optimization of passive design measures for residential buildings in different Chinese areas. Build. Environ., 58: 46– 57 (12 pages).

Goudarzi, H.; Mostafaeipour, A., (2017). Energy saving evaluation of passive systems for residential buildings in hot and dry regions. Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 68: 432–446 (5 pages).

Gryshchenko, I.; Kaplun, V.; Diachenko, M.; Vlasenko, O.; Kaplun, R.; Zhulai, H., (2013). Energy management in higher education: a monograph, Kiev.

Hassan, F., (2014) Application of green technology in Malaysia construction: have we got it right? International construction week and Ecobuild SEA. Kuala Lumpur.

ISO 50001 (2018). Energy Management Systems. Your implementation guide, BSI.

Jomoah, I. M.; Arabia, A.U.M.; Kumar, R.S., (2013). Energy management in the buildings of a university campus in Saudi Arabia – a case study. 4th International conference on power engineering, energy and Electrical Drives. Istanbul, 659-663 (5 pages).

Jun, G.; Nord, N.; Shuqin, C., (2016). Energy planning of university campus building complex: Energy usage and coincidental analysis of individual buildings with a case study. Energy Build., 124.

Kaplun, V.; Bobrovnyk V., (2015). Evaluation of energy efficiency of electrotechnical complexes of higher educational institutions based on normalization specific indicators of energy consumption. KNUTD Bull., 5(90): 59-70 (12 pages)

Kaplun, V.; Shcherbak, V., (2016). Multifactor analysis of university buildings’ energy efficiency. Actual Prob. Econ., 12(186): 349-360 (12 pages).

Kolokotsa, D.; Gobakis, K.; Papantoniou, S.; Georgatou, C.; Kampelis, N.; Kalaitzakis, K.; Santamouris, M., (2016). Development of a web based energy management system for University Campuses: The CAMP-IT platform. Energy and Buildings, 123: 119–135 (17 pages).

Lu, J.; Birru, D.; Whitehouse, K., (2010). Using simple light sensors to achieve smart daylight harvesting. Proceedings of the 2nd ACM Workshop on Embedded Sensing Systems for Energy-Efficiency in Building.

Lützkendorf, T.; Speer, T.; Françoise, S.; Gerald, D.; Piete, C.; Akikazu, K., (2010) . A comparison of international classification for performance requirements and building performance categories used in evaluation methods. p. 7 (12 pages).

Lyons, P.; Hockings, B.; Reardon, C.; Reidy, C.; Gramlick Hamber, R., (2013). Your home: Australia’s guide to environmentally sustainable homes-glazing. (5th Ed). Australian Government Department of Industry-Glazing. (13 pages).

Lysak, O., (2016). Determination of the required power of electric heat storage heaters, Bulletin of the National University "Lviv Polytechnic". Build. Theor. Pract. Ser., 844: 127–138 (12 pages).

Ma, S.L.; Ding, Y.; Shen, R.J.; Zhu, N.A., (2012). Case study of an optimization retrofit of the heat supply system in a campus of Tianjin. Appl. Mech. Mater., 170-173: 2670–2674 (5 pages).

Mahlia, T.M.I.; Razak, H.A.; Nursahida, M.A., (2011). Life cycle cost analysis and payback period of lighting retrofit at the University of Malaya. Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 15(2): 1125–1131 (7 pages).

Malkin, E.; Zhuravska, N., (2016). Energy efficient heat supply system with high ecological properties, Ventilation, lighting and heat supply. Sci. Tech. Collect., 19: 87–93 (7 pages).

Pallant, J., (2005). SPSS survival manual. A step by step guide to data analysis using SPSS for Windows (Version 12). (2nd Ed.). National Library of Australia.

Poroshenko, P., (2018). Draft Law on Ratification of the Financing Agreement (Project "Higher Education. Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Development") between Ukraine and Northern Environmental Finance Corporation No. 0184).

Pöyhönen, S, Ahonen, T., Ahola, J., Punnonen, P., Hammo, S., Nygren, L., (2019). Specific speed-based pump flow rate estimator for large-scale and long-term energy efficiency auditing. Energy Effic., 12 (5) : 1279-1291. (3 pages).

Renew, S., (2011). College of Desert. College of the Desert Campus-wide Lighting Retrofit. Southern California: Edison International. Best Practices Case Studies (2 pages).

Ruparathna, R.; Hewage, K.; Sadiq, R., (2016). Improving the energy efficiency of the existing building stock: a critical review of commercial and Institutional buildings. Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 53: 1032–1045 (14 pages).

Saidur, R.; Hasanuzzaman, M.; Mahlia, T.M.I.; Rahim, N.A.; Mohammed, H.A., (2011). Chillers energy consumption, energy savings and emission analysis in an institutional buildings. Energy. 36(8): 5233–5238 (6 pages).

Satya Raju, R.; Yeshanew Baye, H., (2016). Impact of ISO 9000 certification on TQM practices: empirical study in Ethiopian manufacturing companies. Int. J. Sci. Res., 5: 805-811 (7 pages).

Syed Fadzil, S.F.; Byrd, H., (2012). Energy and building control systems in the tropics, 1st edition, Universiti Sains Malaysia Pulau Pinang, Malaysia.

Tabunshchykov, Y.; Brodach, M., (2002). Mathematical modeling and optimization of thermal efficiency of buildings, AVOK-PRESS.

Tan, B.; Yavuz, Y.; Otay, E.N.; Çamlıbel, E., (2016). Optimal selection of energy efficiency measures for energy sustainability of existing buildings. Comput. Oper. Res., 66: 258–271 (14 pages).

Tang, F.E., (2012). An energy consumption study for a Malaysian. Int. J. Environ. Earth Sci. Eng., 8: 99–105 (7 pages).

Tymkow, P.; Tassou, S.; Kolokotroni, M.; Jounara, H., (2008). Building services design for energy efficient buildings. USA: Routledge

Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, (1994). Law of Ukraine "On Energy-Saving".

Vourdoubas, J., (2019). Energy consumption and carbon emissions in an Academic Institution in Greece: Can it become carbon neutral? Stud. Eng. Technol., 6: 16-23(8 pages).

Williams, B.; Brown, T., (2012). Exploratory factor analysis: a five-step guide for novices, Aust. J. Paramed., 8(3): 1-13 (13 pages).

Wu, M.H.; Ng, T.S.; Skitmore, M.R., (2016). Sustainable building envelope design by considering energy cost and occupant satisfaction. Energy Sustainable Develop., 31: 118–129 (12 pages).

Zeinal, H.A.; Huber, F., (2012).  A comparative study of DGNB, LEED and BREEAM certificate systems in urban sustainability. The Sustainable City VII, 1: 121-132 (12 pages).

Zhou, X.; Yan, J.; Zhu, J.; Cai, P., (2013). Survey of energy consumption and energy conservation measures for Colleges and Universities in Guangdong Province. Energy Build., 66: 112–118 (7 pages).

Zubko, G., (2018). Methodology of audit of energy efficiency of buildings. Order Ministry of Regional development, construction and housing and communal services economy of Ukraine. 



Shcherbak, V.; Ganushchak-Yefimenko, L.; Nifatova, O.; Dudko, P.; Savchuk, N.; Solonenchuk, I., (2019). Application of international energy efficiency standards for energy auditing in a University buildings. Global J. Environ. Sci. Manage., 5(4): …,

Letters to Editor

GJESM Journal welcomes letters to the editor for the post-publication discussions and corrections which allows debate post publication on its site, through the Letters to Editor. Letters pertaining to manuscript published in GJESM should be sent to the editorial office of GJESM within three months of either online publication or before printed publication, except for critiques of original research. Following points are to be considering before sending the letters (comments) to the editor.

[1] Letters that include statements of statistics, facts, research, or theories should include appropriate references, although more than three are discouraged.
[2] Letters that are personal attacks on an author rather than thoughtful criticism of the author’s ideas will not be considered for publication.
[3] Letters can be no more than 300 words in length.
[4] Letter writers should include a statement at the beginning of the letter stating that it is being submitted either for publication or not.
[5] Anonymous letters will not be considered.
[6] Letter writers must include their city and state of residence or work.
[7] Letters will be edited for clarity and length.