1 Department of Soil Science, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Basic Science, Sari University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Sari, Iran


Four diverse chlorides layered double hydroxides with diverse ratios, i.e. Mg-Al (3:1), Mg-Al (4:1), Zn-Al (4:1), and Zn-Al (3:1) LDHs, were prepared to evaluate their efficiency and selectivity towards nitrate removal from aquatic solutions. A batch experiment was done at the initial nitrate concentration of 5-1000 mg/L, pH 5 to 12, and contact time of 5-180 min. Isotherms of nitrate adsorption on LDHs, soil and soil-LDH mixtures were studied. Kinetics of adsorption, temperature effect, nitrate adsorption in nitrate adsorption, simulated soil solution and desorption on Mg-Al-LDH (4:1) were measured. At an optimum speed of 250 rpm, pH value of 7 and adsorbent dosage of 2 g/L, the amounts of nitrate adsorption on Mg-Al- LDH (3:1) and Mg-Zn-LDH (3:1) and also on Mg-Al- LDH (4:1) and Mg-Zn-LDH (4:1) were obtained after 30 and 60 min, respectively. Isotherm studies indicated that nitrate adsorption on soil, soil-LDH mixture, and LDH fitted Langmuir linear isotherm. The highest nitrate adsorption on Mg-Al-LDH (4:1) and a mixture of soil-Mg-Al-LDH (4:1) were 188.67 and 107.52 mg/g, respectively. Among the studied kinetic equations for nitrate adsorption on Mg-Al-LDH (4:1), the pseudo-second-order with R2=0.998 had the best fitness. Negative values of ∆H in different nitrate concentrations indicated the exothermic process of nitrate adsorption on Mg-Al-LDH (4:1). In the presence of other anions, Mg-Al-LDH (4:1) removed nitrate preferentially. Moreover, Mg-Al-LDH (4:1) could exchange nitrate 20 times in different concentrations with no reduction in its adsorption capacity.

Graphical Abstract

Synthesis ratios of Mg-Al and Zn-Al layered double hydroxides efficiency and selectivity in nitrate removal from solution


  • LDH Mg-Al (4:1) has a higher nitrate adsorption capacity than Mg-Al (3:1), Zn-Al (4:1) and Zn-Al (3:1) LDHs;
  • In the presence of carbonate, sulfate, phosphate and chloride anions in the simulated soil solution, Mg-Al-LDH (4:1) adsorbs nitrate as its preferential adsorption mechanism;
  • Mg-Al-LDH (4:1) can exchange nitrates 20 times in different concentrations without reduction of nitrate adsorption capacity.


Main Subjects

Association, A.P.H.; Association, A.W.W. (1989). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, American Public Health Association.

Berber, M.R.; Hafez, I.H.; Minagawa, K.; Mori, T., (2014). A sustained controlled release formulation of soil nitrogen based on nitrate-layered double hydroxide nanoparticle material. J. Soils Sediments, 14(1): 60-66 (7 pages).

Bernardo, M.P.; Moreira, F.K.; Ribeiro, C., (2017). Synthesis and characterization of eco-friendly Ca-Al-LDH loaded with phosphate for agricultural applications. Appl Clay Sci., 137: 143-150 (8 pages).

Benício, L.P.F.; Eulálio, D.; Guimarães, L.d.M.; Pinto, F.G.; Costa, L.M.d.; Tronto, J., (2018). Layered Double Hydroxides as Hosting Matrices for Storage and Slow Release of Phosphate Analyzed by Stirred-Flow Method. Mater. Res., 21(6): 509-525 (16 pages).

Benício, L.P.F.; Silva, R.A.; Lopes, J.A.; Eulálio, D.; Santos, R.M.M.d.; Aquino, L.A.d.; Vergütz, L.; Novais, R.F.; Costa, L.M.d.; Pinto, F.G., (2015). Layered double hydroxides: nanomaterials for applications in agriculture. Rev. Bras. Apl. Vacuo., 39(1): 1-13 (13 pages).

Bidgoli, M.S.; Ahmadi, E.; Yari, A.R.; Hashemi, S.; Majidi, G.; Nazari, S.; Jadidiyan, M.; Azari, A., (2013). Concentration of nitrate in bottled drinking water in Qom, Iran. Arch. Hygiene Sci., 2(4): 121-125 (5 pages).

Bragg, W.L., (1929). The diffraction of short electromagnetic waves by a crystal. Center for Digital Philosophy., 23(45): 153 (153 pages).

Bull, C. (2001). Development and evaluation of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) for nitrate exchange in soil, Cuvillier.

Chabani, M.; Amrane, A.; Bensmaili, A., (2006). Kinetic modelling of the adsorption of nitrates by ion exchange resin. Chem. Eng. J., 125(2): 111-117 (7 pages).

Chatterjee, S.; Woo, S.H., (2009). The removal of nitrate from aqueous solutions by chitosan hydrogel beads. J. Hazard. Mater., 164(2-3): 1012-1018 (7 pages).

Das, J.; Patra, B.; Baliarsingh, N.; Parida, K., (2006). Adsorption of phosphate by layered double hydroxides in aqueous solutions. Appl. Clay Sci., 32(3-4): 252-260 (8 pages).

Foglar, L.; Briški, F.; Sipos, L.; Vuković, M., (2005). High nitrate removal from synthetic wastewater with the mixed bacterial culture. Bioresour. Technol., 96(8): 879-888 (9 pages).

Gammoudi, S.; Frini-Srasra, N.; Srasra, E., (2012). Nitrate sorption by organosmectites. Eng. Geol., 124(3): 119-129 (10 pages).

Goh, K.-H.; Lim, T.-T.; Dong, Z., (2008). Application of layered double hydroxides for removal of oxyanions: a review. Water Res., 42(6-7): 1343-1368 (25 pages).

Halajnia, A.; Oustan, S.; Najafi, N.; Khataee, A.; Lakzian, A., (2013). Adsorption–desorption characteristics of nitrate, phosphate and sulfate on Mg–Al layered double hydroxide. Appl. Clay Sci., 80: 305-312 (7 pages).

Halajnia, A.; Oustan, S.; Najafi, N.; Khataee, A.; Lakzian, A., (2012). The adsorption characteristics of nitrate on Mg–Fe and Mg–Al layered double hydroxides in a simulated soil solution. Appl. Clay Sci., 70: 28-36 (8 pages).

Hatami, H.; Fotovat, A.; Halajnia, A., (2018). Comparison of adsorption and desorption of phosphate on synthesized Zn-Al LDH by two methods in a simulated soil solution. Appl. Clay Sci., 152: 333-341 (8 pages).

Hosni, K.; Srasra, E., (2008). Nitrate adsorption from aqueous solution by M II-Al-CO 3 layered double hydroxide. Inorg. Mater., 44(7): 742-749 (7 pages).

Hu, Z.; Song, X.; Wei, C.; Liu, J., (2017). Behavior and mechanisms for sorptive removal of perfluorooctane sulfonate by layered double hydroxides. Chemosphere, 187: 196-205 (9 pages).

Islam, M.; Patel, R., (2010). Synthesis and physicochemical characterization of Zn/Al chloride layered double hydroxide and evaluation of its nitrate removal efficiency. Desalin. Water Treat., 256(1-3): 120-128 (8 pages).

Islam, M.; Patel, R., (2011). Physicochemical characterization and adsorption behavior of Ca/Al chloride hydrotalcite-like compound towards removal of nitrate. J. Hazard. Mater., 190(1-3): 659-668 (9 pages).

Ivánová, D.; Albert, P.; Kavuličová, J., (2018). Nitrate removal from model aqueous solutions and real water by calcined Mg/Al layered double hydroxides. Appl. Clay Sci., 152: 65-72 (7 pages).

Kannan, N.; Veemaraj, T., (2010). Detoxification of toxic metal ions by sorption onto activated carbon from Hevea brasiliensis bark—a comparative study. Global J. Geol. Sci., 12(2): 197-205 (8 pages).

Kapoor, A.; Viraraghavan, T., (1997). Nitrate removal from drinking water. J. Environ. Eng., 123(4): 371-380 (9 pages).

Khan, A.I.; O’Hare, D., (2002). Intercalation chemistry of layered double hydroxides: recent developments and applications. J. Mater. Chem., 12(11): 3191-3198 (7 pages).

Khataee, A.; Khani, A., (2009). Modeling of nitrate adsorption on granular activated carbon (GAC) using artificial neural network (ANN). Int. J. Chem. Reactor Eng., 7(1): 1-15 (15 pages).

Kleber, M.; Jahn, R., (2007). Andosols and soils with andic properties in the German soil taxonomy. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci., 170(3): 317-328 (11 pages).

Leyva-Ramos, R.; Jacobo-Azuara, A.; Diaz-Flores, P.; Guerrero-Coronado, R.; Mendoza-Barron, J.; Berber-Mendoza, M., (2008). Adsorption of chromium (VI) from an aqueous solution on a surfactant-modified zeolite. Colloids Surf., A., 330(1): 35-41 (6 pages).

Liu, Q.; Guo, H.; Shan, Y., (2010). Adsorption of fluoride on synthetic siderite from aqueous solution. J. Fluorine Chem., 131(5): 635-641 (6 pages).

Loganathan, P.; Vigneswaran, S.; Kandasamy, J., (2013). Enhanced removal of nitrate from water using surface modification of adsorbents–a review. J. Environ. Manage., 131: 363-374 (11 pages).

Murayama, N.; Maekawa, I.; Ushiro, H.; Miyoshi, T.; Shibata, J.; Valix, M., (2012). Synthesis of various layered double hydroxides using aluminum dross generated in aluminum recycling process. Int. J. Miner. Process., 110: 46-52 (6 pages).

Nelson, D.; Sommers, L.E., (1982). Total carbon, organic carbon, and organic matter 1. Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties, Method. Soil Anal., 2: 539-579 (41 pages).

Park, M.; Lee, C.-I.; Lee, E.-J.; Choy, J.-H.; Kim, J.-E.; Choi, J., (2004). Layered double hydroxides as potential solid base for beneficial remediation of endosulfan-contaminated soils. J. Phys. Chem. Solids, 65(2-3): 513-516 (4 pages).

Reddad, Z.; Gerente, C.; Andres, Y.; Le Cloirec, P., (2002). Adsorption of several metal ions onto a low-cost biosorbent: kinetic and equilibrium studies. Environ. Sci. Technol., 36(9): 2067-2073 (6 pages).

Rives, V. (2001). Layered double hydroxides: present and future, Nova Publishers.

Rodríguez-Maroto, J.; García-Herruzo, F.; García-Rubio, A.; Gómez-Lahoz, C.; Vereda-Alonso, C., (2009). Kinetics of the chemical reduction of nitrate by zero-valent iron. Chemosphere, 74(6): 804-809 (6 pages).

Roy, N.; Gray, S.D.; Simon, M.; Dove, H.; Corbin-Lewis, K.; Stemple, J.C., (2001). An evaluation of the effects of two treatment approaches for teachers with voice disorders: a prospective randomized clinical trial. Int. J. Speech Technol., 44(2): 286-296 (10 pages).

Sasai, R.; Norimatsu, W.; Matsumoto, Y., (2012). Nitrate-ion-selective exchange ability of layered double hydroxide consisting of MgII and FeIII. J. Hazard. Mater., 215: 311-314 (4 pages).

Shafigh, M.; Hamidpour, M.; Furrer, G., (2019). Zinc release from Zn-Mg-Fe (III)-LDH intercalated with nitrate, phosphate and carbonate: The effects of low molecular weight organic acids. Appl. Clay Sci., 170: 135-142 (7 pages).

Tezuka, S.; Chitrakar, R.; Sonoda, A.; Ooi, K.; Hirotsu, T., (2007). Studies on Selective Adsorbents for Oxo-anions. NO3-Adsorptive Properties of Mg-Fe Layered Double Hydroxides. J. Ion Exch., 18(4): 276-281 (6 pages).

Tezuka, S.; Chitrakar, R.; Sonoda, A.; Ooi, K.; Tomida, T., (2005). Studies on Selective Adsorbents for Oxo-Anions. No. 3− Adsorptive Properties of Ni-Fe Layered Double Hydroxide in Seawater. Adsorpt, 11(1): 751-755 (5 pages).

Torres‐Dorante, L.O.; Lammel, J.; Kuhlmann, H.; Witzke, T.; Olfs, H.W., (2008). Capacity, selectivity, and reversibility for nitrate exchange of a layered double‐hydroxide (LDH) mineral in simulated soil solutions and in soil. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci., 171(5): 777-784 (7 pages).

Torres-Dorante, L.O.; Lammel, J.; Kuhlmann, H., (2009). Use of a layered double hydroxide (LDH) to buffer nitrate in soil: long-term nitrate exchange properties under cropping and fallow conditions. Plant Soil, 315(1-2): 257-272 (16 pages).

Tong, X.; Yang, Z.; Xu, P.; Li, Y.; Niu, X., (2017). Nitrate adsorption from aqueous solutions by calcined ternary Mg-Al-Fe hydrotalcite. Water Sci. Technol., 75(9): 2194-2203 (9 pages).

Xu, G.; Song, P.; Reed, P., (1992). The relationship between gastric mucosal changes and nitrate intake via drinking water in a high-risk population for gastric cancer in Moping county, China. Eur. J. Cancer: J. ECP., 1(6): 437-443 (7 pages).

Xue, L.; Gao, B.; Wan, Y.; Fang, J.; Wang, S.; Li, Y.; Muñoz-Carpena, R.; Yang, L., (2016). High efficiency and selectivity of MgFe-LDH modified wheat-straw biochar in the removal of nitrate from aqueous solutions. J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. Eng., 63: 312-317 (6 pages).

Letters to Editor

GJESM Journal welcomes letters to the editor for the post-publication discussions and corrections which allows debate post publication on its site, through the Letters to Editor. Letters pertaining to manuscript published in GJESM should be sent to the editorial office of GJESM within three months of either online publication or before printed publication, except for critiques of original research. Following points are to be considering before sending the letters (comments) to the editor.

[1] Letters that include statements of statistics, facts, research, or theories should include appropriate references, although more than three are discouraged.
[2] Letters that are personal attacks on an author rather than thoughtful criticism of the author’s ideas will not be considered for publication.
[3] Letters can be no more than 300 words in length.
[4] Letter writers should include a statement at the beginning of the letter stating that it is being submitted either for publication or not.
[5] Anonymous letters will not be considered.
[6] Letter writers must include their city and state of residence or work.
[7] Letters will be edited for clarity and length.