1 Department of Environmental Science, Amity Institute of Applied Sciences, Amity University, Kolkata, India

2 Department of Environmental Science, The University of Burdwan, Golapbag, Bardhaman, West Bengal, India

3 Department of Chemistry, Asansol Engineering College, Asansol, West Bengal, India


The current study deals with the physicochemical characterization, temporal variability and trophic state evaluation of a post glacial mountain lake in eastern Himalaya during the period of 2014-2016. Notable seasonal variations are recorded for physicochemical parameters of lake water. The values for electrical conductivity, total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, total alkalinity and Chloride are higher during the rainy season. Concentrations of total phosphorous (136.78±29.14 µg/L), total nitrogen (7177.78±1346.70 µg/L) and Chlorophyll-a (38.54±21.67 µg/L) in lake water are distinctly higher than the recommended standards for eutrophic condition of lake/surface water. Application of multivariate tools such as cluster analysis and principal component analysis reveals that ionic constituents of lake water are majorly associated to the geogenic and exogenic factors, with minor seasonal influences. Trophic state indices based on water transparency (3.15±1.57), total phosphorous (74.72±3.39), total nitrogen (82.64±2.83) exhibit hypertrophic nature of lake water; while trophic state index for chlorophyll-a indicate eutrophic condition. Deviations between Trophic state indices (TSICHLa-TSISD: -14±7.88, TSICHLa-TSITP: -9.17±3.33, and TSICHLa-TSITN: -17.56±5.29) infer that the nutrients (phosphorus and nitrogen) are not limiting factors for the algal biomass, and non-algal components such as suspended solids soil/sediment particles affects the light attenuation in the monitored lake. The observations reveal that trophic condition of monitored lake is in alarming stage. Therefore, measures should be taken on urgent basis in order to intercept the increasing trend in eutrophication, and for the restoration of water quality and integrated lake ecosystem.

Graphical Abstract


  • An integrated method is used to assess the physicochemical characteristics and trophic conditions in post glacial mountain lake
  • Multivariate study reveals that lake water is majorly influenced by geological weathering followed by anthropogenic contribution
  • Trophic state index of lake water belongs to upper eutrophic-hypertrophic condition with distinct seasonal variations
  • Non-algal turbidly found to be the limiting factors for algal growth in lake water.


Main Subjects

Ali, E.M.; Khairy, H.M., (2016). Environmental assessment of drainage water impacts on water quality and eutrophication level of Lake Idku, Egypt. Environ. Pollut. 216: 437-449 (13 pages).

An, K.G.; Park, S.S., (2003). Influence of seasonal monsoon on the trophic state deviation in an Asian reservoir. Water Air Soil Pollut. 145: 267–287 (21 pages).

Anshumali; Ramanathan, A.L., (2007). Seasonal variation in the major ion chemistry of Pandoh lake, Mandi district, Himachal Pradesh, India. Appl. Geochem., 22: 1736–1747 (12 pages).

APHA, (2005) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 21st Edition, American Public Health Association/American Water Works Association/Water Environment Federation, Washington DC.

Belkhiri, L.; Boudoukha, A.; Mouni, L.; Baouz, T., (2010). Application of multivariate statistical methods and inverse geochemical modeling for characterization of groundwater - A case study: Ain Azel plain (Algeria). Geoderma. 159: 390-398 (9 pages).

Carlson, R.E., (1991). Expanding the trophic state concept to identify non-nutrient limited lakes and reservoirs. In: Enhancing the states’s lake management programs. 59–71 (13 pages).

Carlson, R.E., (1977). A trophic state index for lakes. Limnol. Oceano., 22: 361–369 (9 pages).

Chakrabarti, B.K., (2016). Geology of the Himalayan Belt: Deformation, Metamorphism, Stratigraphy. Amsterdam, Elsevier.

Chandra, S.; Kumar, A.; Tomar, P.K., (2012). Assessment of water quality values in Porur Lake Chennai, Hussain Sagar Hyderabad and Vihar Lake Mumbai, India. Chem. Sci. Trans., 1(3): 508–515 (8 pages).

Choudhury, M., (2006). Sikkim, geographical perspectives. Mittal Publication, New Delhi., 30-70 (41 pages).

Das, B.K.; Kaur, P., (2001). Major ion chemistry of renuka lake and weathering processes, sirmaur district, Himachal Pradesh, India. Environ. Geol., 40: 908–917 (10 pages).

Davidson, K.; Gowen, R.J.; Harrison, P.J.; Fleming, L.E.; Hoagland, P.; Moschonas, G., (2014). Anthropogenic nutrients and harmful algae in coastal waters. J. Environ. Manage. 146: 206-216 (11 pages).

Dodds, W.K.; Cole, J.J., (2007). Expanding the concept of trophic state in aquatic ecosystems: It’s not just the autotrophs. Aquatic. Sci., 69: 427–439 (13 pages).

Donia, N.; Hussein, M., (2004). Eutrophication assessment of lake Manzala using GIS techniques. Paper presented at the Eighth International Water Technology Conference, IWTC8.

Doan, P.T.K.; Némery, J.; Schmid, M.; Gratiot, N., (2015). Eutrophication of turbid tropical reservoirs: Scenarios of evolution of the reservoir of Cointzio, Mexico. Ecol. Inform., 29, Part 2: 192-205 (14 pages).

Ganguly, D.; Patra, S.; Muduli, P.R.; Vardhan, K.V.; Abhilash, K.R.; Robin, R.S.; Subramanian, B.R., (2015). Influence of nutrient input on the trophic state of a tropical brackish water lagoon. J.  Earth Syst. Sci. 124(5): 1005-1017 (13 pages).

Ganju, N.K.; JMiselis, J.L.; Aretxabaleta, A.L., (2014). Physical and biogeochemical controls on light attenuation in a eutrophic, back-barrier estuary. Biogeosci. 11: 7193–7205 (13 pages).

Gibbs, R.J., (1970). Mechanisms controlling world water chemistry. Science, 170: 1088-1090 

Grace, V.B.; Mas-Pla, J.; Novais, T.; Sacchi, E.; Zuppi, G.M., (2008). Hydrological mixing and geochemical processes characterization in an estuarine/mangrove system using environmental tracers in Babitonga Bay (Santa Catarina, Brazil). Cont. Shelf. Res., 28: 682-695 (14 pages).

Gupta, M., (2014). A new trophic state index for lagoons. J. Ecosyst. Article ID 152473, (8 pages).

Havens, K.E., (2000). Using trophic state index (TSI) values to draw inferences regarding phytoplankton limiting factors and seston composition from routine water quality monitoring data. Korean J. Limnol., 33: 187–196 (10 pages).

Hutchinson, G.E., (1957). A treatise on limnology, Volume 1, Geography, Physics and Chemistry. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York.

IS-2296, (1982). Tolerance limits for inland surface water subject to pollution. Bureau of Indian Standard.

Jain, A.; Rai, S.C.; Pal, J.; Sharma, E., (1999). Hydrology and nutrient dynamics of a sacred lake in Sikkim Himalaya. Hydrobiol., 416: 13-22 (10 pages).

Jain, A.; Rai, S.C.; Sharma, E., (2000). Hydro-ecological analysis of a sacred lake watershed system in relation to landuse/cover change from Sikkim Himalaya. Catena., 40: 263–278 (16 pages).

Jain, A.; Singh, H.B.; Rai, S.C.; Sharma, E. (2004). Folklores of sacred Khecheopalri lake in the Sikkim Himalaya of India A Plea for Conservation. Asian Folklore Stud., 63: 291–302 (12 pages).

Kane, D.D.; Conroy, J.D.; Peter Richards, R.; Baker, D.B.; Culver, D.A., (2014). Re-eutrophication of Lake Erie: Correlations between tributary nutrient loads and phytoplankton biomass. J. Great Lakes Res., 40(3): 496-501 (6 pages).

Kratzer, C.R.; Brezonik, P.L., (1981). A Carlson-type trophic state index for nitrogen in Florida lakes. Water Res. Bull. 17: 713–715 (3 pages).

Larson, G.L.; Hoffman, R.L.; Hargreaves, B.R.; Collier, R.W., (2007). Predicting Secchi disk depth from average beam attenuation in a deep, ultra-clear lake. Hydrobiologia, 574: 141–148 (8 pages).

Lawson, E.O., (2011). Physico-chemical parameters and heavy metal contents of water from the mangrove swamps of Lagos Lagoon, Lagos, Nigeria. Adv. Biol. Res. 5: 8–21 (14 pages).

Matthews, R.; Hilles, M.; Pelletier, G., (2002). Determining trophic state in Lake Whatcom, Washington (USA), a soft water lake exhibiting seasonal nitrogen limitation. Hydrobiol. 468: 107–121 (15 pages).

Mishra, A.K.; Garg, N.N., (2011). Analysis of trophic state index of Nainital Lake from Landsat −7 ETM Data. J. India. Soc. Remote Sens. 39 (4): 463–471 (9 pages).

Ndungu, J.; Augustijn, D.C.M.; Hulscher, S.J.M.H.; Kitaka, N.; Mathooko, J., (2013). Spatio-temporal variations in the trophic status of Lake Naivasha, Kenya. Lakes Reserv. Res.  Manage. 18: 317–328 (12 pages).

Niswander, S.F.; Mitsch, W.J., (1995). Functional analysis of a two-year-old created instream wetland: hydrology, phosphorus retention, and vegetation survival and growth. Wetlands, 15: 215- 225 (11 pages).

Okech, E.O.; Kitaka, N.; Oduor, S.O.; Verschuren, D., (2018). Trophic state and nutrient limitation in Lake Baringo, Kenya. Afr. J. Aquatic Sci., 43(2): 169–173 (5 pages).

Pang, Z.; Yuan, L.; Huang, T.; Kong, Y.; Liu, J.; Li, Y., (2013). Impacts of humanactivities on the occurrence of groundwater nitrate in an alluvialplain: amultiple isotopic tracers approach. J. Earth Sci., 24(1): 111–124 (14 pages).

Radojevic, M.; Bashkin, V.N., (1999). Practical environmental analysis, The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, U.K., 288–295 (8 pages).

Rao, G.S.; Rao, G.N., (2010).Study of groundwater quality in greaterVisakhapatnam city, Andhra Pradesh (India). J. Environ. Sci. Eng. 52(2): 137–146 (10 pages).

Saluja, R.; Garg, J.K., (2017).Trophic state assessment of Bhindawas Lake, Haryana, India, Environ. Monit. Assess. 189: 32 (15 pages).

Sarbu, C.; Pop, H.F., (2005). Principal component analysis versus fuzzy principal component analysis. A case study: the quality of Danube water (1985–1996). Talanta., 65: 1215–1220 (6 pages).

Sarath Prasanth, S.V.; Magesh, N.S.; Jitheshlal, K.V.; Chandrasekar, N., (2012). Evaluation of groundwater quality and its suitability fordrinking and agricultural use in the coastal stretch of AlappuzhaDistrict, Kerala, India. Appl. Water Sci. 2(3): 165–175 (11 pages).

Sheela, A.M.; Letha, J.; Joseph, S., (2011). Environmental status of a tropical lake system. Environ. Monit. Assess. 180: 427-449 (23 pages).

USEPA, (1974). The relationships of Ρ and Ν to the trophic state of northeast and north-central lakes and reservoirs. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Eutrophication Survey.

Walker, Jr W.W., (1982). An empirical analysis of phosphorus, nitrogen, turbidity effects on reservoir chlorophyll-a levels. Can. Water Resour. J., 7: 88-107 (20 pages).

Wilkinson, G.M., (2017). Eutrophication of freshwater and coastal ecosystems. In reference module in earth systems and environmental sciences. Encycl. Sustainable Technol. 145-152 (8 pages).

Xu, Y.; Cai, Q.; Han, X.; Shao, M.; Liu, R., (2010). Factors regulating trophic status in a large subtropical reservoir, China. Environ. Monit. Assess. 169: 237–248 (12 pages).

Zhang, W.; Jin, X.; Liu, D.; Lang, C.; Shan, B., (2017). Temporal and spatial variation of nitrogen and phosphorus and eutrophicationassessment for a typical arid river: Fuyang River in northern China. J. Environ. Sci., 55: 41-48 (8 pages).



Nayek, S.; Gupta, S.; Pobi, K.K., (2018). Physicochemical characteristics and trophic state evaluation of post glacial mountain lake using multivariate analysis. Global J. Environ. Sci. Manage., 4(4): 451-464.

Letters to Editor

GJESM Journal welcomes letters to the editor for the post-publication discussions and corrections which allows debate post publication on its site, through the Letters to Editor. Letters pertaining to manuscript published in GJESM should be sent to the editorial office of GJESM within three months of either online publication or before printed publication, except for critiques of original research. Following points are to be considering before sending the letters (comments) to the editor.

[1] Letters that include statements of statistics, facts, research, or theories should include appropriate references, although more than three are discouraged.
[2] Letters that are personal attacks on an author rather than thoughtful criticism of the author’s ideas will not be considered for publication.
[3] Letters can be no more than 300 words in length.
[4] Letter writers should include a statement at the beginning of the letter stating that it is being submitted either for publication or not.
[5] Anonymous letters will not be considered.
[6] Letter writers must include their city and state of residence or work.
[7] Letters will be edited for clarity and length.