Document Type: ORIGINAL RESEARCH PAPER

Authors

Department of Watershed Management, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran

Abstract

The proper use of natural resources can preserve these valuable assets. In line with the management of natural resources, land use optimization can be highly useful. The aim of the present study is to propose an appropriate integrative model for optimized allocation of lands for surface runoff and sediment load minimization and net income maximization in Bayg watershed, Iran. In this study, five categories of land uses, i.e. irrigated orchard, rangeland, irrigated farming, rainfed farming and almond orchard were spatially optimized to minimize surface runoff and sediment yield and to increase net income by integrating three approaches: weighted goal programming, analytic hierarchy process and multi-objective land allocation algorithm. To achieve the target levels in this work, the acreages of almond orchard and rainfed farming should be reduced by 100% and 37.32% respectively, and irrigated farming acreage should be increased by 138.53%. Through these alterations in the land use acreage, the sediment load will be reduced by 16.78% and net income will be improved by 72.52%. However, runoff volume will be increased by 0.22%. Results indicated that weighted goal programming satisfied 96% and 46% of the target levels of sediment load and net income respectively, but failed to reduce runoff volume. Therefore, it is necessary for managers to control runoff using the strategies related to runoff harvesting, especially on steep slopes. Generally, it can be concluded that a combination of the techniques weighted goal programming, analytic hierarchy process and multi-objective land allocation is highly capable to optimize land use and land covers based on the conflicting objectives.

Graphical Abstract

Highlights

  • The high capability of the proposed integrative approach for land use optimization in a semi-arid watershed
  • The significant impact of soil properties on land use optimization, explored through analytic hierarchy process
  • The successful integration of economic objectives with environmental targets to assess land use allocation based on the soil suitability analysis
  • The significant acreage reduction in rainfed farming and almond orchard after optimization because of their substantial role in watershed sediment yield.

Keywords

Main Subjects

Alizadeh, M.; Ngah, I.; Shahabi, H.; Alizade, E., (2013). Evaluating AHP and WLC methods in site selection of waste landfill (Case study: Amol, North of Iran).  J.  Basic Appl. Sci. Res. 3(5): 83-88 (6 pages).

Aouni, B.; Kettani, O.; Martel, J. M., (1997). Estimation through the imprecise goal programming model. Adv. Multiple Object. Goal Prog., 455: 120-128 (9 pages).

Barnett, D.; Blake, B.; McCarl, B. A., (1982). Goal programming via multidimensional scaling applied to Senegalese subsistence farms. Am. J. Agr. Econ. 64(4): 720-727 (8 pages).

Bowler, I. R., (2010). Promoting sustainable agriculture and rural development. 1st Ed. University of Leicester (25 pages).

Cerdà, A.; Keesstra, S.D.; Rodrigo-Comino, J.; Novara, A.; Pereira, P.; Brevik, E.; Giménez-Morera, A.; Fernández-Raga, M.; Pulido, M.; di Prima, S.;  Jordán, A., (2017). Runoff initiation, soil detachment and connectivity are enhanced as a consequence of vineyards plantations. J. Environ. Manage. 202, 268-275 (8 pages).

Cheng, S., (2001). Development of a Fuzzy Multi-criteria Decision Support System for Municipal Solid Waste Management. MSc dissertation, University of Regina. Saskatchewan, Canada (181 pages).

Clark, D., (2003). Urban world/global city, 2nd Ed. Routledge. London and New York (227 pages).

Coyle, G., (2004). The analytic hierarchy process. Upper Saddle River. NJ. USA: Pearson Education Open Access. Material (20 pages).

Critchley, W.; Siegert, K.; Chapman, C.; Finkel, M., (1991). Water harvesting. A manual for the design and construction of water harvesting schemes for plant production. FAO Corporate Document Repository.

Daneshvar, M.R. M.; Bagherzadeh, A., (2012). Evaluation of sediment yield in PSIAC and MPSIAC models by using GIS at Toroq Watershed, Northeast of Iran. Front. Earth Sci., 6(1): 83-94 (12 pages).

De Lara, M.; Doyen, L., (2008). Sustainable management of natural resources: mathematical models and methods, 1st Ed. Springer. Sci. Business Media (236 pages).

Evelyn, O.B., (2009). Utilizing geographic information system to determine optimum forest cover for minimizing runoff in a degraded watershed in Jamaica. Int. Forest Rev., 11(3): 375-393 (18 pages).

FAO, (1977). Soil resources and conservation service. (1977). Soil resources and conservation service Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, No. 32.

Hajehforooshnia, S.; Soffianian, A.; Mahiny, A.S.; Fakheran, S., (2011). Multi objective land allocation (MOLA) for zoning Ghamishloo Wildlife Sanctuary in Iran. J. Nat. Conserv. 19(4): 254-262 (9 pages).

Hobbs, P.R.; Osmanzai, M., (2011). Important rainfed farming systems of South Asia. In Rainfed Farming Systems. Springer Netherlands, 603-641 (39 pages).

Holdren, J.; Ehrlich, P., (1971). Overpopulation and the Potential for Ecocide. Jovanovich, New York (15 pages).

Huang, K.; Liu, X.; Li, X.; Liang, J.; He, S., (2013). An improved artificial immune system for seeking the Pareto front of land-use allocation problem in large areas. Int. J. Geogr. Inf. Sci. 27(5): 922-946 (25 pages).

Johnson, C.W.; Gebhardt, K.A., (1982). Predicting sediment yields from sagebrush rangelands [Pacific Southwest Inter-Agency Committee prediction procedure, southwest Idaho]. Agric. Rev. Manuals. 26:145-156 (12 pages).

Jones, D.; Tamiz, M., (2010). Practical goal programming. 141 Ed. New York: Springer (160 pages).

Keesstra, S.D.; Quinton, J.N.; van der Putten, W.H.; Bardgett, R.D.; Fresco, L.O., (2016). The significance of soils and soil science towards realization of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Soil, 2(2): 111-126 (16 pages).

Keesstra, S.; Nunes, J.; Novara, A.; Finger, D.; Avelar, D.; Kalantari, Z.; Cerdà, A., (2018). The superior effect of nature based solutions in land management for enhancing ecosystem services. Sci. Total Environ. 610, 997-1009 (13 pages).

Kheyrkhah, A.; Mohamadi, F.; Memarian, H., (2015) Determination of suitable locations for rainwater harvesting using analytic hierarchy process in GIS framework (Case study: Roodsarab watershed, Khooshab, Khorasan Razavi, Iran). Iran J. Rainwater Catch. Syst., 8 (3): 59-72 (14 pages) (in Persian).

Lélé, S.M. (1991). Sustainable development: A critical review. World Dev., 19(6): 607-621 (15 pages).

Leung, S.C.; Lai, K.K., (2002). Multiple objective decision-making in the mode choice problem: a goal-programming approach. Int. J. Syst. Sci. 33(1): 35-43 (9 pages).

Li, J.; Rahman, M. H.; Thring, R.W., (2010). A fuzzy multi-criteria decision analysis approach for the management of petroleum-contaminated sites. Int. J. Environ. Pollut., 42(1-3): 220-239 (20 pages).

Lu, D.; Weng, Q., (2007). A survey of image classification methods and techniques for improving classification performance. Int. J. Remote Sens. 28(5): 823-870 (48 pages).

McCuen, R.H., (1989). Hydrologic analysis and design. 2nd Ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ.; Prentice-Hall.

Memarian, H.; Balasundram, S.K.; Abbaspour, K.C.; Talib, J.B.; Sung, C.T.B.; Sood, A.M., (2015). Integration of analytic hierarchy process and weighted goal programming for land use optimization at the watershed scale. Turkish J. Eng. Environ. Sci. 38(2): 139-158 (20 pages).

Memarian, H.; Balasundram, S.K.; Talib, J.B.; Sung, C.T.B.; Sood, A.M.; Abbaspour, K., (2012). Validation of CA-Markov for simulation of land use and cover change in the Langat Basin, Malaysia. J. Geog. Inf. Syst. 4(6): 542-554 (13 pages).

Mohseni Saravi, M.; Farzanegan, M.; Koopaee, M.; Kholghi, M., (2003). The determination of optimal land use pattern in watershed resources using goal programming. Iran J. Nat. Res., 56(1, 2): 3-15 (13 pages) (in Persian).

Mol, G.; Keesstra, S.D., (2012). Soil sciences in a changing world. Curr. Opin. Environ. Sustainable. 4(5), 473-477 (5 pages).

Mwasi, B., (2001). Land use conflicts resolution in a fragile ecosystem using Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) and a GIS-based Decision Support System (DSS). International Conference on Spatial Information for Sustainable Development, Nairobi, Kenya (2–5 October 2001).

Nikkami, D.; Elektorowicz, M.; Mehuys, G.R., (2002). Optimizing the management of soil erosion. Water Qual. Res. J. Canada. 37(3): 577-586 (10 pages).

Njiti, C.F.; Sharpe, D.M., (1994). A goal-programming approach to the management of competition and conflict among land uses in the tropics; the Cameroon example. Ambio. 23(2): 112-119 (8 pages).

Owji, M.R.; Nikkami, D.; Mahdian, M.H.; Mahmudi, Sh., (2012). Minimizing runoff and sedimentation by optimizing land use (Case study: Jajrood watershed). J. Water Soil Conserv. 20(4): 183-199 (17 pages) (in Persian). 

Pearsall, H.; Lucas, S.; Lenhardt, J., (2014). The contested nature of vacant land in Philadelphia and approaches for resolving competing objectives for redevelopment. Cities 40: 163-174 (12 pages).

Rahemi, A.; Yadollahi, A., (2006). Rainfed almond orchards in Iran, ancient and new methods and the value of water harvesting techniques. Acta Horticulturae 726: 449-453 (5 pages).

Riedel, C., (2003). Optimizing land use planning for mountainous regions using LP and GIS towards sustainability. J. Soil. Conserv. 34(1): 121-124 (4 pages).

Saaty, T.L., (1988). What is the analytic hierarchy process? In Mathematical models for decision support. 109-121. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (13 pages).

Saaty, T. L. (2008). Decision making with the analytic hierarchy process. Int. J. Serv. sci. 1(1): 83-98 (16 pages).

Sadeghi, S.H.R.; Jalili, K.; Nikkami, D., (2009). Land use optimization in watershed scale. Land Use Policy 26(2): 186-193 (8 pages).

Sharma, S.K.; Lees, B.G., (2004). A comparison of simulated annealing and GIS based MOLA for solving the problem of multi-objective Land use assessment and allocation. In: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis, Whistler, Canada, Open-File Report Ap58 (10 pages).

Shaygan, M.; Alimohammadi, A.; Mansourian, A., (2013).  Multi-objective optimization approach for land use allocation using goal attainment algorithm and MOLA. Iran J. Remote Sens. GIS, 5(1): 1-12 (13 pages) (in Persian).

Singh, A.K.; Singh, J.P., (1999). Production and benefit maximization through optimal crop planning-a case study of Mahi Command. India J. Soil Conserv.  27(2): 152-157 (6 pages).

Sys, I.C.; Van Ranst, E.; Debaveye, I.J.; Beenaert, F., (1993). Land evaluation (Part I-III). Crop Requirements. General Administration for Development Cooperation, Brussels. Belgium (191 pages).

Tajbakhsh, M.; Memarian, H.; Shahrokhi, Y., (2016). Analyzing and modeling urban sprawl and land use changes in a developing city using a CA-Markovian approach. Global J. Environ. Sci. Manage. 2(4): 397-410 (14 pages).

Te Chow, V.; Maidment, D.R.; Mays, L.W., (1988). Applied hydrology. Tata McGraw-Hill Education (294 pages).

Tra, N.T.; Egashira, K., (2004). Land use effectiveness by farm households after land and forest allocation at Tran Yen district, Yen Bai province. J. Faculty Agric., Kyushu University. 49(2): 461-466 (6 pages).

Tripathi, R.P.; Singh, H.P., (1993). Soil erosion and conservation. 2nd Ed. New Age International Limited. (P)Ltd. New Delhi.

Yeo, I.Y.; Gordon, S.I.; Guldmann, J.M., (2004). Optimizing patterns of land use to reduce peak runoff flow and nonpoint source pollution with an integrated hydrological and land-use model. Earth Interact. 8(6): 1-20 (20 pages).

Zadeh, L.A., (1965). Fuzzy Sets. Inf. Control 8(3): 338-353 (16 pages).

 

HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE

Tajbakhsh, S.M.; Memarian, H.; Kheyrkhah, A., (2018). A GIS-based integrative approach for land use optimization in a semi-arid watershed. Global. J. Environ. Sci. Manage., 4(1): 31-46 (16 pages).


Letters to Editor


GJESM Journal welcomes letters to the editor for the post-publication discussions and corrections which allows debate post publication on its site, through the Letters to Editor. Letters pertaining to manuscript published in GJESM should be sent to the editorial office of GJESM within three months of either online publication or before printed publication, except for critiques of original research. Following points are to be considering before sending the letters (comments) to the editor.

[1] Letters that include statements of statistics, facts, research, or theories should include appropriate references, although more than three are discouraged.
[2] Letters that are personal attacks on an author rather than thoughtful criticism of the author’s ideas will not be considered for publication.
[3] Letters can be no more than 300 words in length.
[4] Letter writers should include a statement at the beginning of the letter stating that it is being submitted either for publication or not.
[5] Anonymous letters will not be considered.
[6] Letter writers must include their city and state of residence or work.
[7] Letters will be edited for clarity and length.

CAPTCHA Image