School of Environmental Science, Universitas Indonesia, Central Jakarta, DKI Jakarta, Indonesia


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Urbanization has been causing many problems for the environment and society. An ineffective and inefficient government also contributes to urban problems by increasing public dissatisfaction and distrust of government. Technological Improvements makes it possible for local governments in Indonesia to implement the concept of  “Smart City” as a solution to solve urban problems. This study aims to fill the gap by examining the impact of smart city application on public trust towards the government.
METHODS: A primary data collection was conducted in 2021 to profile the citizens' behaviour in terms of smart city application. This study had surveyed four big cities in Indonesia that had built smart city applications well: Jakarta, Bandung, Semarang, and Surabaya. The primary data were analyzed through ordinary least squares regression.
FINDINGS: This study founds that the fundamental factors of smart city applications that are statistically significant were on quality, satisfaction, and reliability. These factors had positive and significant impacts on the level of trust in the local government. Based on the regression model, the increase of application quality score by 1 affects the score of trust in the local government, which will rise by 0.440 (Jakarta), 0.269 (Bandung), and 0.245 (Semarang), and 0.212 (Surabaya). The increase in application satisfaction score by 1 affects the score of trust in local government, which will rise by 0.193 (Jakarta), 0.431 (Bandung), 0.07 (Semarang), and 0.186 (Surabaya). Also, an increase in application reliability score by 1 affects a rise in trust in local government by 0.187 (Jakarta), 0.204 (Bandung), 0.137 (Semarang), and 0.192 (Surabaya).
CONCLUSION: Smart city applications can shape public trust by increasing the application's quality, satisfaction, reliability and community empowerment. However, it should be noted that the number of community which uses smart city application is still low. Therefore, It is necessary to encourage a culture of using those applications to help build citizens’ trust in the government and improve urban quality.

Graphical Abstract

Smart city based on community empowerment, social capital, and public trust in urban areas


  • The predictive model developed proves that the smart city application can help to build the trust of citizens in the government (social capital), especially towards the local government;
  • Smart city applications can shape public trust by increasing the application's quality, satisfaction, reliability and community empowerment,
  • The results of this work show that the most influential variables in building citizens' trust through smart city applications is related to the quality and reliability of the application and the user's satisfaction with the application;
  • The suggested predictive model shows that users' age, gender, and education do not significantly impact the building of the trust of the citizen through the smart city application.


Main Subjects


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