Document Type : REVIEW PAPER


1 Kalasalingam School of Agriculture and Horticulture, Kalasalingam Academy of Research and Education, Krishankoil, Srivilliputhur, Tamil Nadu, India

2 Faculty of Life Sciences, Mandsaur University, Mandsaur, India

3 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


The amount of agricultural waste generated by agro-based industries such as palm oil, rubber, and wood processing plants have more than tripled. Selangor, Perak, and Johor account for 65.7 percent of the total number of recognised pollution sources in the manufacturing and agro-based sectors. Livestock dung is another major cause of pollution, contributing significantly to increase pollution levels in the environment. Large portion of agro-industrial waste is untreated and unused, it is frequently disposed of by replicating or dumping then again off the cuff landfilling.  These untreated wastes wreak havoc on natural change by releasing ozone-depleting chemicals. Aside from that, the usage of fossil fuels is also leading to an increase in ozone-depleting compounds. Agro-waste is a huge environmental hazard in the current epidemic situation. The management of agro-waste and the conversion of agro-waste into a usable product through the application of biotechnological technologies in agriculture are receiving a lot of attention in today''s world. Solid state fermentation is the finest approach for converting agro-waste into valuable bio products among biotechnological instruments.  Various agro-wastes such as wheat straw, barley straw, cotton stalks, sunflower stacks, and oil cakes from various agriculture goods, as well as major horticulture wastes such as apple, mango, orange peels, and potato peels, were used to create beneficial products in this review.  All aspects of the production of industrial products from various agro-waste by using microorganisms such as Amycolatopsis Mediterranean, Xanthomonas campestries, and Aspergillus niger producing biopolymers such as polysaccharides, similar to starch, cellulose, agar, hemi-celluloses, gelatin, alginate, and carrageenan are covered in the current revels. Yeasts and cyanobacteria are commonly employed to make bio-lipids, whereas Bacillus species are utilised to make proteins and bio-enzymes. Cucumber and orange strips, on the other hand, have recently been employed to create proteins and bio-enzymes.  As a result, this review covers the many forms of agro-wastes and their by-products as well as biotechnological technologies used to treat them.

Graphical Abstract

Agricultural waste management generated by agro-based industries using biotechnology tools


  • Among the food domains, it is estimated that soil products account for a significant portion of waste generation is about 45 percent of the total production and utilisation chains, resulting in an enormous amount of waste material;
  • The yeasts, cyanobacteria, green development, a few microorganisms, and creatures can accumulate a large proportion of their body weight in lipids of about 20 to 80 percent;
  • The cucumber strips carried a higher proportion of protein. These natural item wastes are converted to SCP employing reasonable microbes.


Main Subjects

Open Access

©2022 The author(s). This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit:

Publisher’s Note

GJESM Publisher remains neutral concerning jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affliations.

Citation Metrics & Captures

Google Scholar Scopus Web of Science PlumX Metrics Altmetrics Mendeley |

Current Publisher

GJESM Publisher

Letters to Editor

GJESM Journal welcomes letters to the editor for the post-publication discussions and corrections which allows debate post publication on its site, through the Letters to Editor. Letters pertaining to manuscript published in GJESM should be sent to the editorial office of GJESM within three months of either online publication or before printed publication, except for critiques of original research. Following points are to be considering before sending the letters (comments) to the editor.

[1] Letters that include statements of statistics, facts, research, or theories should include appropriate references, although more than three are discouraged.
[2] Letters that are personal attacks on an author rather than thoughtful criticism of the author’s ideas will not be considered for publication.
[3] Letters can be no more than 300 words in length.
[4] Letter writers should include a statement at the beginning of the letter stating that it is being submitted either for publication or not.
[5] Anonymous letters will not be considered.
[6] Letter writers must include their city and state of residence or work.
[7] Letters will be edited for clarity and length.