College of Forestry and Environmental Science, Central Mindanao University, Musuan, Maramag, Philippines


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The study involved developing a two-dimensional flood model to analyze the risk exposure of land use/land cover based on the generated flood hazard maps for the six return period scenarios in the Solana watershed.
METHODS: The approach consisted of applying hydrologic and hydraulic numerical flood models and the suite of advanced geographic information systems and remote sensing technologies. The process involved utilizing a high-resolution digital elevation model and a set of high-precision instruments such as the real-time kinematic-global position system receiver, digital flow meter, deep gauge, and automatic weather station in collecting the respective data on bathymetry, river discharge, river depth, and rainfall intensity during a particular climatic event, needed for the model development, calibration and validation.
FINDINGS: The developed two-dimensional flood model could simulate flood hazard with an 86% accuracy level based on the coefficient of determination statistics. The flood risk exposure analysis revealed that coconut is the most affected, with 31.3% and 37.1% being at risk across the 2-year and 100-year return period scenarios, respectively. Results also showed that rice and pineapple are at risk of flooding damage with the increasing rate of exposure by a magnitude of 42.9 and 9.3 across the 2-year and 100-year flood scenarios, respectively.
CONCLUSION: The study highlighted the integration of the findings and recommendations in the localized comprehensive land use plan and implementation to realize the challenge of building a climate change proof and a flood-resilient human settlement in the urbanizing watershed of Solana.

©2021 The author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, as long as the original authors and source are cited. No permission is required from the authors or the publishers.

Graphical Abstract

Two-dimensional flood model for risk exposure analysis of land use/land cover in a watershed


  • The manuscript considers the importance of high precision instruments like the real-time kinematic-global positioning system receiver for accurate collection of geospatial points needed in the whole process of flood modeling;
  • The study has calibrated and validated the 2D flood model and generated flood hazard maps for the six return period scenarios with an 89% level of accuracy;
  • The study generated information on the flood risk exposure of land use/land cover potential in making a comprehensive land-use plan relative to building a flood-resilient community.


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