Document Type : REVIEW PAPER


National Technical University of Athens, School of Chemical Engineering, Unit of Environmental Science and Technology, Heroon Polytechniou Street, Zographou Campus, 15773 Athens, Greece


The effective and sustainable environmental performance of a business is a result of various factors and most important the integrated outcome of the environmental management. Likewise, the integration of environmental protection into the armed forces functions has also gain interest for the military sector internationally. Therefore, the environmental management system (EMS) is recognized as one of the most widely used tools. This study provides a review on environmental management issues related to the military activities and their assessment globally. The multitasking characteristics of the defence sector result in the need for the eco-friendly related issues to be directed in a holistic and integrated way, with the help of a certified environmental management system. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) itself and NATO countries, like USA, UK, Canada, Holland, Denmark, Czech Republic, Greece, as well as non-NATO countries like Sweden and Australia have an environmental management system structure in place to assist military environmental management and studies reveal that the armed forces could anticipate positive outcomes from environmental management system. A case-by-case approach, of the above, is examined and based on the results, appropriate recommendations are presented, which may contribute to the environmental management system considerations as the most important tool for effective management framework and most importantly to evaluate its effectiveness as a structure for the defence sector’s activities.

Graphical Abstract

Study of environmental management systems on defence


  • Comprehensive  assessment of implementation of environmental management system in defence
  • Presentation of the EMS situation in several NATO and non-NATO countries
  • Evaluation of effectiveness of EMSs in the military activities and recommendations for further improvement.


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