Department of Energy and Environment, Symbiosis Institute of International Business, Symbiosis International University, Hinjawadi-I, Pune, Maharashtra, India


The carrying capacity is well identified tool to manage problems due to uncontrolled tourism for any destination. This report highlights the carrying capacity estimation of Kerwa tourism area, Bhopal, India. The methodology used in this report is a new two-tier mechanism of impact analysis using index numbers derived from a survey of 123 stakeholders. From this the individual component impact analysis and the total carrying capacity of the area is computed in order to state the insight of the total carrying capacity left for the tourism activities in Kerwa tourism area. It is calculated from, the results so obtained, that the Kerwa catchment area falls in “very low impact category” and hence in a healthy state of the artwork in terms of total carrying capacity. The study conveys the current need in the destination management and tourism development as a road map for the destination managers for implementing sustainable tourism.

Graphical Abstract

Evaluating total carrying capacity of tourism using impact indicators


  • Evaluation of tourism capacity of Kerwa tourism area based on two tier system methodology
  • Estimation of the impacts for individual indicators of components  
  • Calculating the carrying capacity unit for each component.
  • Calculation of the area’s total carrying capacity
  • Categorization of impact and deviation of carrying capacity


Bhattacharya, A.K.; Banerjee, S., (2003). Relevance of carrying capacity and eco-development linkages for sustainable ecotourism.  The Indian Forester, 129 (3): 330-340 (11 pages).
Bhattacharya, A.K.; Sankar, T., (2007a). A new methodology for estimating the total carrying capacity of tourism destinations: A case study of Pench National Park, M.P., India, In: Bhattacharya, A. K. (Ed.), Forestry for the next decade-managing thrust areas, Vol. I,Concept Publishing House, New Delhi: 221- 230 (10 pages).
Bhattacharya, A.K.; Sankar, T.,(2007b). Estimating the total carrying capacity of protected areas with respect to tourism activities: A case study of Bandhavgarh National Park, Madhya Pradesh, India. In: Bhattacharya, A.K. (Ed.), Forestry for the next decade-managing thrust areas, Vol. I, Concept Publishing House, New Delhi: 211-220 (10 pages).
Bhattacharya, A.K.; Sharma, R.; Sharma, K.; Banerji, S.,(2005). Assessment of environmental impacts-issues, tools and options. The Indian Forester, Vol. 131 (6): 741- 752 (13 pages).
Briassoulis, H., (1992). Environmental impacts of tourism: A framework for analysis and evaluation. Tourism and the environment: regional, economic and policy issues, In: Briassoulis, H. and Straaten, Jan van der (Eds.),Kluwer Academic Publishers. 11-22. (13 pages).
Buckley, R., (1999). Tools and indicators for managing tourism in parks. Annals Touri.Recrea. Res., 26(1): 207- 209 (3 pages).
Carr, M.H., (2000). Marine protected areas: challenges and opportunities for understanding and conserving coastal marine ecosystems. Environ. Conserv., 27: 106-109 (04 pages).
Coccossis, H.; Mexa, A., (2004). The challenge of tourism carrying capacity assessment- theory and practice. Ashgate Publishing, Ashgate.
Davis, D.; Tisdell, C. (1995). Recreational scuba- diving and carrying capacity in marine protected areas. OceanCoast. Manage., 26(1): 19-40 (23 pages).
Deeppa, K.; Krishnamurthy, I., (2014). Analysis of time and cost overruns in infrastructure projects in India. NICMAR Journal of Constru. Manage., Vol. XXIX, (III): 5-20 (17 pages).
Desai, M.; Bhatt, R., (2013). A methodology for ranking of causes of delay for residential construction projects in Indian context. Int. J. Emerg. Tech. Advan. Eng., 3 (3): 396-404 (9 pages).
Fraschetti, S.; Terlizzi, A.; Micheli, F.; Benedetti-Cecchi, L.; Boero, F., (2002). Marine protected areas in the Mediterranean Sea: Effectiveness and monitoring. Mar. Ecol., 23 (1): 190- 200 (12 pages).
Gossling, S., (2002). Global environmental consequences of tourism. Global Environ. Chang., 12: 283- 302 (21 pages).
Green, H.; Hunter, C.; Moore, B., (1990). Application of the Delphi technique in tourism. Annals of touri. Res., 17 (17): 270-279 (10 pages).
Hunter, C.; Green, H., (1995). Tourism and the environment: a sustainable relationship. Routledge, London.
Inskeep, E., (1991). Tourism Planning: an integrated and sustainable development approach. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.
Lucas, R.C., (1964). Wilderness perception and use: the examples of boundary water canoe area.  Nat. Resour. J., 3 (3): 394-411 (19 pages).
Luc, H.,(1998). Tourism and Environment. Free University of Brussels, Belgium.
Mitra, A.; Chattopadhyay, K., (2003). Environment and Nature- based Tourism- An endeavor at sustainability. Kanishka Publishers Distributors, New Delhi.
Nghi, T.; Lan, N.T.; Thai, N.D.; Mai, D.; Thanh, D.X., (2007). Tourism carrying capacity assessment for PhongNh-Ke Bang and Dong Hoi, QuangBinh Province. VNU. J. Sci. Earth Sci., 23: 80-87 (8 pages).
O’Reilly, A.M., (1986). Tourism Carrying Capacity: Concepts and issues. Touri. Manage., 7 (4): 254- 258 (5 pages).
Rios-Jara, E.; Galvan-Villa, C.M.; Rodriguez-Zaragoza, F.A.; Lopez-Uriate, E.; Munos-Fernandez, V.T., (2013). The tourism carrying capacity of underwater trails in Isabel Island National Park. Environ. Manage., 52: 335- 347 (14 pages).
Rowe, G.; Wright, G., (1999). The technique of a forecasting tool: issues and analysis. International Journal of Forecast., 5: 353-375 (24 pages).
Sankar, T.C., (2003). Carrying Capacity of protected areas with respect to tourism activities: Case studies from Bandhavgarh and Pench National Parks, Madhya Pradesh. MRM Dissertation. Indian Institute of Forest Management, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India.
Saveriades, A., (2000). Establishing the social tourism carrying capacity for the tourist resorts of the east coast of the Republic of Cyprus. Touri. Manage., 21 (2): 147-156 (10 pages).
Sharma, R.; Bhattacharya, A.K., (2014). Analysis of potential outcome-based indicators for assessing the biodiversity status of managed forests: A case study of Delawari Range, Ratapani Wildlife Sanctuary, Madhya Pradesh. Int. Res. J. Environ. Sci., 3 (8):77-85 (10 pages).
Sharma, R.; Bhattacharya, A.K.; Sharma, K., (2005). Local Perceptions of Environmental Impacts of tourism at Bhojpur, Madhya Pradesh- A Preliminary Analysis. Indian J. Appl. Pure Bio., 20 (2): 219- 226 (8 pages).
Tisdell, C.A., (1998). Ecotourism- Aspects of its sustainability and compatibility with conservation, social and other objectives. Aust. J. Hospit. Manage., 5: 11- 21 (11 pages).
Wagar, J., (1964). The carrying capacity of wilderness for recreation. Forest Service Monograph, Society of American Foresters, 7: 23 (1 page).
Wall, G., (1983). Cycles and Capacity: A contradiction in Terms?.Annals Touri. Res., 10: 268-270 (03 pages).

Letters to Editor

GJESM Journal welcomes letters to the editor for the post-publication discussions and corrections which allows debate post publication on its site, through the Letters to Editor. Letters pertaining to manuscript published in GJESM should be sent to the editorial office of GJESM within three months of either online publication or before printed publication, except for critiques of original research. Following points are to be considering before sending the letters (comments) to the editor.

[1] Letters that include statements of statistics, facts, research, or theories should include appropriate references, although more than three are discouraged.
[2] Letters that are personal attacks on an author rather than thoughtful criticism of the author’s ideas will not be considered for publication.
[3] Letters can be no more than 300 words in length.
[4] Letter writers should include a statement at the beginning of the letter stating that it is being submitted either for publication or not.
[5] Anonymous letters will not be considered.
[6] Letter writers must include their city and state of residence or work.
[7] Letters will be edited for clarity and length.