Document Type: CASE STUDY

Authors

Environmental Department, Soils, Water and Environment Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Ministry of Agricultural and Land Reclamation, Giza, 12112, Egypt

Abstract

A risk assessment study was conducted to predict the expected hazardous influence on the ecosystem resulted from urbanization and industrialization activities at Helwan area, Egypt. To achieve these goals, soils, plants and water samples were collected from Helwan area, and their total concentrations of inorganic contaminants (Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and organic pollutants; such as Phenol and hydrocarbons were measured. The obtained results showed that, the concentrations of organic contaminants in water streams and surrounding soils recorded high concentration values than the permissible limits, while inorganic elements were within the safe limits for irrigation. In addition, soils irrigated with the effluents of industrial units recorded high values of inorganic and organic contaminants. Consequently, the levels of these contaminants were high in plant tissues grown thereon; especially the edible parts. Risk assessment based on available Predicted No Effect Concentration values for the aquatic and terrestrial environment was performed. Inorganic elements were expected to cause serious hazard problems for both aquatic organisms and soil microorganisms. The impact of these pollutants on human health was calculated using daily metals intake of inorganic metals via consumption of edible plants. Hazard index values proved that concentrations of Cr may cause serious hazard problems for humans in this area; especially, children.

Graphical Abstract

Highlights

  • Human activities led to environmentally contamination
  • Hazard impacts are expected to aquatic organisms due to toxic substances
  • Toxic metals in soils led to the accumulation of it in edible plants
  • Heavy metals exist led to serious human health impacts

Keywords

Main Subjects

Abdel-hafez, A.A.; Li, J., (2015). Environmental monitoring of heavy metal status and human health risk assessment in the agricultural soils of the Jinxi River area, China.Human Ecol. Risk Assess.: An International Journal. 21(4): 952-971 (20 pages).

APHA, (2005). Standard methods for the examination of Water and Wastewater, American Public Health Association Washington, DC.

ATSDR,.2007. Toxicological profile for lead. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/csem/lead/pblead2.

Box, J. D., (1983). Investigation of the Folin-Ciocalteau phenol reagent for the determination of polyphenolic substances in natural waters. Water Res., 17: 511-525 (15 pages).

Cambra, K.; Martınezm, T.; Urzelai, A.; Alonso, E., (1999). Riskanalysis of a farm area near a lead- and cadmium-contaminatedindustrial site. Soil Sediment Contam. 8: 527–540 (14 pages).

Chary, N. S.; Kamala, C. T.; Raj, D. S. S., (2008). Assessing risk of heavy metals from consuming food grown on sewage irrigated soils and food chain transfer. Ecotoxicol., Environ., Safety. 69: 513–524 (10 pages).

Cooke, J. A.; Johnson, M. S., (1996). Cadmium in mammals. In: Beyer, W.N., Heinz, G., Redmon-Norwood, A.W. (Eds.). Environmental Contaminants in Wildlife. SETAC special publication series, Boca Raton, FL, Lewis, 377–388 (12 pages).

Costa, M.; Klein, C. B., (2006).Toxicity and carcinogenicity of chromium compounds in humans. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 36: 155–163 (9 pages).

Cottenie, A.; Verloo, M.; Kiekns, L.; Veighe, G.; Gamerlynek, R., (1982). Chemical analysis of plants and soils lab.Analy.andagroch. St., State Univ., Ghent, Belgium.

Economic Affairs Sector (EAS)., (2011). Food balance sheet. Ministry of Agricultural and land Reclamation, Egypt.

Egyptian Code (501)., (2005). Using treated sewage water in agricultural field. National center for housing and building research, Ministry of Housing, Utilities and Urban Communities, Egypt.

Eriksen, G. S.; Amundsen, C.E.; Bernhoft, A.; Eggen, T.; Grave, K.; Halling-Sørensen, B.; Källqvist,T.; Sogn, T.; Sverdrup, L., (2009). Risk assessment of contaminants in sewage sludge applied on Norwegian soils. Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (VKM).

European Union, (2006). Commission regulation (EC) No. 1881/2006 of 19 December 2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. Official Journal of European Union L364/5.

European Commission, (2003). Technical guidance document in support of commission directive 93/67/EEC on risk assessment for new notified substances and commission regulation (EC) No. 1488/94 on risk assessment for existing substances, Part II. Brussels, Belgium.

European Union, (2002).  Heavy Metals in Wastes, European Commission on Environment. (http: //ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/studies/pdf/heavy metals report.pdf ).

Faiz, Y.; Siddique, N.; Tufail, M., (2012). Pollution level and health risk assessment of road dust from an expressway. J of Environ. Sci. Health, A. 47: 818–829 (12 pages).

FAO., (1985). Water quality for agriculture. Paper No. 29 (Rev. 1) UNESCO, Publication, Rome.

FAO/WHO., (1986).  Toxicological  evaluation  of  certain  food additives  and  contaminants,  WHO  Food  Additives  Series  21, Rome,  .

Hernando, M. D.; Mezcua, M.; Fernández-Alba, A. R.; Barceló, D.,  (2006). Environmental risk assessment of pharmaceutical residues in wastewater effluents, surface water sand sediments. Talanta. 69: 334–42 (9 pages).

Igre, Y.; Lock, R. A.; Jenner, H. A.; Wendelaar Bonga, S. E., (1994). Cellular response in the skin of Carp (CyprinusCarpio) exposed to copper. Aquat.Toxicol. 29: 49-64.

Jackson, M., (1979). Soil chemical analysis. Advanced course.2ndEd., Self-published, Madison, W1, pp 898.

Jamali, M. K.; Kazi, T. G.; Arain, M. B.; Afridi, H. I.; Jalbani, N.; Kandhro, G.A.; Shah, A. Q.; Baig, J. A., (2009). Heavy metal accumulation in different varieties of wheat (Triticumaestivum L.) grown in soil amended with domestic sewage sludge. J. Hazard. Mater., 164: 1386–1391 (6 pages).

Jan, F. A.; Ishaq, M.; Khan, S.; Ihsanullah, I.; Ahmad, I.; Shakirullah, M.,
(2010). A comparative study of human health risks via consumption of food crops grown on wastewater irrigated soil (Peshawar) and relatively clean water irrigated soil (lower Dir). J. Hazard. Mater. 179: 612–621 (10 pages).

Jarup, L., (2003). Hazards of heavy metal contamination. Br. Med. Bull. 68: 167–182 (6 pages).

Kabata-Pendias, A.; Dudka, S.; Chlopecka, A.; Gawinowska, T., (1992). Background levels and environmental influences on trace metals in soils of the temperate humid zone of Europe, in The Biogeochemistry of Trace Metals, edited by D. C. Adriano, Lewis, Boca Raton, Fla. pp. 61– 84 (24 pages)..

Khan, S.; Rehman, S.; Khan, A. Z.; Khan, M. A.; Shah, T., (2010). Soil and vegetables enrichment with heavy metals from geological sources in Gilgit, northern Pakistan.Ecotoxicol. Environ. Safety 73: 1820–1827 (8 pages).

Kirkham, M.B., (1986). Problems of using wastewater on vegetable crops. Hort Sci., 21:(1) 24–27 (4 pages).

Lei, M.; Liao,B.; Zeng, Q.; Qin, P.; Khan, S., (2008). Fraction distribution of lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in metal contaminated soil before and after extraction with disodiumethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 39: 1963–1978 (6 pages).

Mahmood, A.; Malik, R. N., (2014). Human health risk assessment of heavy metals via consumption of contaminated vegetables collected from deferent irrigation sources in Lahore, Pakistan. Arab J of Chem., 7: 91–99 (9 pages).

Nagajyoti, P. C.; Lee, K. D.; Sreekanth, T. V. M., (2010). Heavy metals, occurrence and toxicity for plants: A review. Environ. Chem. Lett., 8(3):199–216 (8 pages).

Nambiar, K. K. M; Ghosh, A. B., (1984). Highlights of Research of a Long Term Fertilizer Experiment in India (1971–1982). LTFE Research Bulletin No. 1. Indian Agric. Inst., New Delhi, pp. 1–100 (100 pages)..

Ochiai, E. I., (1977). Bioinorganic chemistry, Allyn and Bacon, Boston, Toronto, London, Sydney.

Parsons, T. R.; Matia, Y.; Malli, G. M., (1985). Determination of petroleum hydrocarbons. A manual of chemical and biological method for seawater analysis. Pergamon Press, Oxford.

Spear, P. A., (1981). Zinc in the aquatic environment: chemistry, distribution, and toxicology. National Research Council of Canada Publication NRCC 17589. (145 pages).

US-EPA, IRIS., (2006). United States, Environmental Protection Agency, integrated risk information system. <http://www.epa.gov/iris/substS>.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, (1996). Soil screening guidance: Technical background document. EPA/540/R-95/128.Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Washington, DC. http://www.epa.gov/superfund/health/conmedia/soil/toc.htm (Accessed August)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency., (2002). Supplemental guidance for developing soil screening levels for superfund sites. OSWER 9355.4 –24.Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, DC. http://www.epa.gov/superfund/health/conmedia/soil/pdfs/ssg main.pdf .

US-EPA., (2011). The Screening Level. http://www.epa.gov/region9/superfund/prg/index.html

Van den Berg, R., (2011). Human exposure to soil contamination: a qualitative and quantitative analysis towards proposals for human toxicological intervention values. RIVM Report No. 725201011. National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM). Bilthoven, the Netherlands. (April 1991/January 1994)

Wagner, G.J., (1993). Accumulation of cadmium in crop plants and its consequences to human health. Adv. Agron. 51: 173–212 (40 pages).

WHO, (1992). Cadmium. Environmental Health Criteria, vol. 134, Geneva.

Wong, C.S.C.; Li, X.D.; Zhang, G.; Qi, S.H.; Peng, X.Z., (2003). Atmospheric depositions of heavy metals in the Pearl River Delta, China. Atmos. Environ. 37: 767–776 (10 pages).

Wright, D. A.; Welbourn, P., (2002). Environmental toxicology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.http://go.mining.com/apr08-a3.


Letters to Editor


GJESM Journal welcomes letters to the editor for the post-publication discussions and corrections which allows debate post publication on its site, through the Letters to Editor. Letters pertaining to manuscript published in GJESM should be sent to the editorial office of GJESM within three months of either online publication or before printed publication, except for critiques of original research. Following points are to be considering before sending the letters (comments) to the editor.

[1] Letters that include statements of statistics, facts, research, or theories should include appropriate references, although more than three are discouraged.
[2] Letters that are personal attacks on an author rather than thoughtful criticism of the author’s ideas will not be considered for publication.
[3] Letters can be no more than 300 words in length.
[4] Letter writers should include a statement at the beginning of the letter stating that it is being submitted either for publication or not.
[5] Anonymous letters will not be considered.
[6] Letter writers must include their city and state of residence or work.
[7] Letters will be edited for clarity and length.

CAPTCHA Image