Department of Biotechnology, Kumaraguru College of Technology, Chinnavedampatti, Saravanampatty, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu 641 049, India


The current investigation presents the role of gooseberry (Phyllanthus acidus) seeds as an effective biosorbent for remediating chromium (VI)), a toxic heavy metal pollutant commonly found in effluents from tanneries and relevant industries. Biosorption was affected by pH, temperature and initial metal concentration. Furthermore, there is a need to understand the holistic effect of all variables to ascertain the best possible conditions for adsorption, therefore, these factors were considered and a total of 17 trials were run according to the Box Behnken design. Quadratic model had maximum R2 value (0.9984) and larger F value (1109.92). From the Analysis Of Variance table and R2 value, quadratic model was predicted to be the significant model with the best fit to the generated experimental data. The optimal parameters obtained from the contour plot for the maximum removal of chromium(VI) were initial metal concentration of 60 mg/L, pH value of 2, and temperature of 27°C. Under these conditions, maximum removal of 92% was obtained. Thus this biosorbent substantially eliminates chromium(VI) under optimized conditions, enabling its use in larger scale. 

Graphical Abstract


  • The optimal conditions for Cr(VI) biosorption using Gooseberry seed is at 27°C in pH 2 with an initial metal concentration of 60mg/L of sample
  • Based on the regression equation, the individual effect of pH, temperature and initial metal concentration have negative effect on biosorption
  • Maximum removal of Cr(VI) in this study is 91.26% of the initial concentration which has been validated 
  • Locally available alternative for Effective removal of Cr(VI)


Main Subjects

Anupam, K.; Suman, D.; Chiranjib, B.; Siddhartha, D., (2011). Adsorptive removal of chromium (VI) from aqueous solution over powdered activated carbon: Optimization through response surface methodology. Chem. Eng. J., 173:135-143 (8 pages).

APHA, A.,(2005). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater in: (17th Ed.) American public health association., Washington DC.

Aravind, J.; Sudha, G.; Kanmani, P.; Devisri, A.J.; Dhivyalakshmi, S.; Raghavprasad, M., (2015). Equlibrium and kinetic study on chromium (VI) removal from simulated waste water using gooseberry seeds as a novel biosorbent. Global J. Environ. Sci. Manage., l(3): 233-244 (12 pages).

Ariffin, M.A.; Lim, S.H.; Zainura, N.; Zaini, U., (2008).Removal of boron industrial waste water by chemical precipitation using chitosan. J. Chem. Nat. Resour. Eng., 4(1): 1-11 (11 pages).

Arulkumar, M.; Kasinathan, T.; Palanivel, T.; Thayumanavan, P., (2012). Rapid removal of chromium from aqueous solution using novel prawn shell activated carbon. Chem. Eng. J., 185-186: 178-186 (9 pages).

Bajpai, A.K.; Rai, L., (2010). Removal of chromium ions from aqueous solution by biosorption on to ternary biopolymeric microspheres. Int. J. Chem. Technol., 17: 17-27 (11 pages).

Box, G.E.P.; Wilson, K.B., (1960). Some new three level designs for the study of quantitative variables. Technometrics, 2: 455-475 (21 pages).

Cheung, K.H.; Gu J.D., (2007). Mechanisms of hexavalent chromium detoxification by bacteria and bioremediation applications. Int. Biodeter. Biodegr.,59: 8-15 (8 pages).

Das, B.; Mondal, N.K.; Roy, P.; Chattaraj, S., (2013). Equilibrium, Kinetic, and Thermodynamic study on Cr (VI) removal from aqueous solution using Pistiastratiotes biomass. Chem. Sci. Trans., 2 (1): 85-104 (20 pages).

Das, B.; Mondal, N.K.; Roy, P.; Chattoraj, S., (2013). Application of response surface methodology for hexavalent chromium adsorption onto alluvial soil of Indian origin. Int. J. Environ. Pollut. Solut., 2: 72-87 (16 pages).

Das, N.; Vimala, R.; Karthika,P., (2007). Biosorption of heavy metals – an overview. Indian J. Biotechnol., 7: 159-169 (11 pages).

Devi, B.V.; Jahagirdar, A.A.; Ahmed, M.N.Z., (2012). Adsorption of chromium on activated carbon prepared from coconut shell. Int. J. Eng. Res. Appl., 2 (5): 364-370 (7 pages).

Fenglian, Fu.; Qi, Wang., (2011). Removal of heavy metal ions from wastewaters: A review. J. Environ. Manage., 92: 407-418 (12 pages).

Ferreira, S.L.C.; Bruns, R.E.; Ferreira, H.S.; Matos, G.D.; David, J.M.; Brand˜ao, G.C.; da Silva, E.G.P.; Portugal, L.A.; dos Reis, P.S.; Souza, A.S.; dos Santos, W.N.L., (2007). Box-Behnken design:  An alternative for the optimization of analytical methods. Anal. Chim. Acta., 597: 179–186 (8 pages).

George, Z.K.; Jie, F.; Kostas, A. M., (2013). The change from past to future for adsorbent materials in treatment of dyeing wastewaters. Mater., 6: 5131-5158 (28 pages).

Goyal, K.R.; Jayakumar, N.S.; Hashim, M.A., (2011). A comparative study of experimental optimization and response surface optimisation of Cr removal by emulsion ionic liquid membrane. J. Hazard. Mater., 196: 383-390 (8 pages).

Hamsaveni, D.R.; Prapulla, S.G.; Divakar, S., (2001).Response surface methodological approach for the synthesis of isobutyl isobutyrate. Process Biochem., 36: 1103-1109 (8 pages).

Kanmani, P.; Karthik, S.; Aravind, J.; Kumaresan, K., (2013). The use of response surface methodology as a statistical tool for media optimization in lipase production from the dairy effluent isolate Fusarium solani. ISRN Biotechnology., article ID 528708:8 (8 pages).

Krishna, D.; Krishna, S.K.; Sree, K.P., (2013). Response surface modeling and optimization of chromium (vi) removal from aqueous solution using borasus flabellifer coir powder. Int. J. Appl. Sci. Eng., 2: 213-226 (14 pages).

Kundu, S.; Gupta, A.K., (2005). Analysis and modelling of fixed bed column operations on As (V) removal by adsorption onto iron-oxide coated cement. J. Colloid Interf. Sci., 290(1): 52-60 (9 pages).

Lee, J.; Ye, L.; Landen, W.O.; Eitenmiller., (2000). Optimization of an extraction procedure for the quantification of vitamin e in tomato and broccoli using response surface methodology. J. Food Comp. Anal., 13: 45-57 (13 pages).

Montgomery, D.C., (1997). Design and analysis of experiments, 4th.Ed. John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Muthukumaran, K.; Beulah, S.S., (2010). SEM and FT-IR studies on nature of adsorption of Mercury (II) and Chromium (VI) from waste water using chemically activated Syzygiumjambolanumnut carbon. Asian J. Chem., 22(10):7857-7864 (8 pages).

Nguyen, T.A.H.; Ngo, H.H.; Guo, W.S.; Zhang, J.; Liang, S.; Yue, Q.Y.; Li, Q.; Nguyen, T.V., (2013). Applicability of agricultural waste and by-products for adsorptive removal of heavy metals from wastewater. Bioresour. Technol., 148: 574-585 (12 pages).

Özdemer, E.; Dilek, D.; Beker, U.; Ash, O.A., (2011).Process optimization for Cr (VI) adsorption onto activated carbon by experimental design. Chem. Eng. J., 172: 207-218 (14 pages).

Raji, C.; Anirudhan, T.S., (1998). Batch Cr (VI) removal by polyacrylamide grafted sawdust: Kinetics and thermodynamics. Water Res., 32(12): 3772-3780 (9 pages).

Rao, LN.; Prabhakar, G., (2011). Removal of heavy metals by biosorption - an overall review. J. Eng. Res. Stud., 2:17-22 (6 pages).

Ravikumar, K.; Pakshirajan, K.; Swaminathan, T.; Balu, K., (2005). Optimization of batch process parameters using response surface methodology for dye removal by a novel adsorbent. Chem. Eng. J., 105: 131-138 (8 pages).

Rene, E.R.; Jo, M.S.; Kim, S.H.; Park, H.S., (2007). Statistical analysis of main and interaction effects during the removal of BTEX mixtures in batch conditions, using waste water treatment plant sludge microbes. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol., 4(2): 177-182 (6 pages).

Sahu, J.N.; Jyothikusum, A.; Meikap, B.C., (2009). Response surface modelling and optimization of chromium (VI) removal from aqueous solution using tamarind wood activated carbon in batch process. J. Hazard. Mater., 172:818-825 (8 pages).

Salman, H.A.; Ibrahim, M.I.; Tarek, M.M.; Abbas, H.S., (2014). Biosorption of heavy metals – a review. J. Chem. Sci. Tech., 3 (4): 74-102 (29 pages).

Sarin, V.; Pant, K.K., (2006). Removal of chromium from industrial waste using eucalyptus bark. Bioresour. Technol., 97: 15-20 (6 pages).

Talokar, A.Y., (2011). Studies on removal of chromium from waste water by adsorption using low cost agricultural biomass as adsorbents. Int. J. Adv. Biotech. Res., 2 (4): 452-456 (5 pages).

Wang, J.S.; Hu, X.J.; Liu, Y.J.; Xie, S.B.; Bao, Z.L., (2010). Biosorption of uranium (VI) by immobilized Aspergillus fumigates beads. J. Environ. Radioact., 101: 504-508 (5 pages).

Yu, X.; Gu, J.D.,(2007). Accumulation and distribution of trivalent chromium and effects on metabolism of the hybrid willow Salix matsudana Koidz× alba L. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.,52: 503-511 (9 pages).

Yu, X.Z.; Gu, J.D.; Huang S.Z., (2007). Hexavalent chromium induced stress and metabolic responses in hybrid willows. Ecotoxicology,16: 299-309 (11 pages).

Letters to Editor

GJESM Journal welcomes letters to the editor for the post-publication discussions and corrections which allows debate post publication on its site, through the Letters to Editor. Letters pertaining to manuscript published in GJESM should be sent to the editorial office of GJESM within three months of either online publication or before printed publication, except for critiques of original research. Following points are to be considering before sending the letters (comments) to the editor.

[1] Letters that include statements of statistics, facts, research, or theories should include appropriate references, although more than three are discouraged.
[2] Letters that are personal attacks on an author rather than thoughtful criticism of the author’s ideas will not be considered for publication.
[3] Letters can be no more than 300 words in length.
[4] Letter writers should include a statement at the beginning of the letter stating that it is being submitted either for publication or not.
[5] Anonymous letters will not be considered.
[6] Letter writers must include their city and state of residence or work.
[7] Letters will be edited for clarity and length.