Document Type : CASE STUDY


1 Department of Environmental Planning, University of Tehran and Department of Industrial Ecology, ACECR-Sharif University Branch, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of the Environment, Faculty of Technical and Engineering, Islamic Azad University, North Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Marine Biology, Faculty of Oceanic and Marine Science, Khormshahr University of Marine Science and Technology, Khuzestan Province, Iran

4 Department of Geology, Faculty of Earth Science, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran


In recent decades, necessity to protect environment has been a serious concern for all people and international communities. In appropriate development of human economic activities, subsistence dependence of the growing world population on nature decreases the natural diversity of ecosystems and habitats day by day and provides additional constraints for life and survival of wildlife. As a result, implementation of programs to protect species and ecosystems is of great importance. The current study was carried out to implement a comprehensive strategic environmental management plan in the Mond protected area in southern Iran. Accordingly, the protected area was zoned using multi criteria decision method. According to the numerical models, fifteen data layer were obtained on a scale of 1:50,000. The results revealed that 28.35% out of the entire study area belongs to nature conservation zone. In the following step, in order to offer the strategic planning using strength, weaknesses, opportunities and threats method, a total number of 154 questionnaires were prepared and filled by the relevant experts. For this purpose, after identifying the internal and external factors, they were weighted in the form of matrices as; internal factor evaluation and external factor evaluation. Analytical hierarchy process and expert choice software were applied to weight the factors. At the end, by considering the socioeconomic and environmental issues, the strategy of using protective strategies in line with international standards as well as a strong support of governmental national execution with a score of 6.05 was chosen as the final approach.

Graphical Abstract

Stepwise strategic environmental management in marine protected area


  • Applying fuzzy-AHP method in evaluation of SWOT matrix
  • Using MCE method in zonation of protected district based on ecological capabilities
  • Integration of SWOT and MCE as effective methods in handling managerial issues of protected areas
  • MCE method was considered as an appropriate method in management of protected areas
  • Considering the socioeconomic and environmental issues in protected areas to help protective strategies 


Amin, S.H.; Razmi, J.; Zhang, G., (2011). Supplier selection and order allocation based on fuzzy SWOT analysis and fuzzy linear programming. Expert Sys. Appl., 38: 334-342 (10 pages).
Arslan, O.; Deha, Er I., (2008). SWOT analysis for safer carriage of bulk liquid chemicals in tankers. J. Hazard. Mater., 154: 901-913 (13 pages).
Bennett, N.; Harvey Lemelin, R.; Koster, R.; Budke, I., (2012). A capital assets framework for appraising and building capacity for tourism development in aboriginal protected area gateway communities. Tourism Manage., 33: 752-766. (14 pages).
Bertzky, M.; Stoll-Kleemann, S., (2009). Multi-level discrepancies with sharing data on protected areas: What we have and what we need for the global village. J. Environ. Manage., 90: 8-24. (16 pages).
Borge Johannesen, A., (2007). Protected areas, wildlife conservation, and local welfare. Ecol. Econ., 62: 126-135 (9 pages).
Brandon, K.; Gorenflo, L. J.; Rodrigues, A.S.L.; Waller, R.W., (2005). Reconciling biodiversity conservation, people, protected areas, and agricultural suitability in Mexico. World Dev., 33: 1403-1418 (16 pages).
Chang, H.H.; Huang, W.C., (2006). Application of a quantification SWOT analytical method. Math. Comput. Model., 43: 158-169 (12 pages).
DOE, (2012). Comprehensive Environmental Studies of Mond Protected Area. Department of the Environment, Research Project. Bushehr, Iran (188 pages).
Ezebilo, E.E.; Mattsson, L., (2010). Socio-economic benefits of protected areas as perceived by local people around Cross River National Park, Nigeria. Forest Policy Econ., 12:189-193 (5 pages).
Gao, C.Y.; Peng, D.H., (2011). Consolidating SWOT analysis with nonhomogeneous uncertain preference information. Knowl-based Syst., 24: 796-808 (14 pages).
Halla, F., (2007). A SWOT analysis of strategic urban development planning: The case of Dares Salaam city in Tanzania. Habitat Int., 31: 130-142 (13 pages).
Hinchliffe, S., (2008). Reconstituting nature conservation: Towards a careful political ecology. Geoforum, 39: 88-97 (10 pages).
Kajanus, M.; Leskinen, P.; Kurttila, M.; Kangas, J., (2012). Making use of MCDS methods in SWOT analysis: lessons learnt in strategic natural resource management. Forest Policy Econ., 20: 1-9 (9 pages).
Kearneya, R.; Farebrotherb, G.; Buxtonb, C.D.; Goodsellc, P., (2012). How terrestrial management concepts have led to unrealistic expectations of marine protected areas. Mar. Policy, 38:304-313. (10 pages).
Kurttila, M.; Pesonen, M.; Kangas, J.; Kajanus, M., (2000). Utilizing the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) in SWOT analysis — a hybrid method and its application to a forest-certification case. Forest Policy Econ., 1:41-52. (11 pages).
Lee, K.; Lin, S., (2008). A fuzzy quantified SWOT procedure for environmental evaluation of an international distribution center. Inform. Sci., 178: 531-549. (19 pages).
Leonard J., (1981-1988). Contribution a l’étude de la flore et de la végétation des déserts d’Iran. Fasc 1-9. Meise. (9 pages).
Leroux, Sh. J.; Krawchuk, M.A.; Schmiegelow, F.; Cumming, S.G.; Lisgo, K.; Anderson, L. G.; Petkova, M., (2010). Global protected areas and IUCN designations: Do the categories match the conditions?. Biol. Conserv., 143: 609-616. (7 pages).
Lockwood, M., (2010). Good governance for terrestrial protected areas: A framework, principles and performance outcomes. J. Environ. Manage., 91(3): 754-766. (15 pages).
Martín-López, B.; García-Llorente, M.; Palomo, I.; Montes, C., (2011). The conservation against development paradigm in protected areas: Valuation of ecosystem services in the Doñana social–ecological system (southwestern Spain). Ecol. Econ., 70: 1481-1491. (11 pages).
McDonald, R. I.; Boucher, T. M., (2011). Global development and the future of the protected area strategy. Biol. Conserv., 144: 383-392. (10 pages).
Meyer, C. G., (2007). The impacts of spear and other recreational fishers on a small permanent Marine Protected Area and adjacent pulse fished area. Fish. Res., 84: 301-307. (8 pages).
Mostafavi, H.; Kiabi, B.; Mahini, E.; Mehrabian, A.; Naghinejhad, E., (2004). Ecological Evaluation of Mond Protected Area. Corporate scientific project between Department of the Environment of Bushehr Province and Shahid Beheshti University. Bushehr (133 pages).
Nag, R.; Hambrick, D.C.; Chen, M.J., (2007). "What is strategic management, really? Inductive derivation of a consensus definition of the field" (PDF). Strategic Manage. J., 28(9): 935–955. (16 pages).
Nikolaou, I.E.; Evangelinos, K.I., (2010). A SWOT analysis of environmental management practices in Greek Mining and Mineral Industry. Resour. Policy, 35: 226-234. (9 pages).
Nouri, J.; Karbassi, A. R.; Mirkia, S., (2008). Environmental management of coastal regions in the Caspian Sea. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Tech., 5(1): 43-52. (10 pages).
Oldfield, Th.E.E.; Smith, R.J.; Harrop, S. R.; Leader-Williams, N., (2004). A gap analysis of terrestrial protected areas in England and its implications for conservation policy. Biol. Conserv., 120: 303-309. (7 pages).
Paliwal R., (2006). EIA practice in India and its evaluation using SWOT analysis. Environ. Impact Asses., 26: 492-510. (19 pages).
Qingwei F., (2012). Research on Health Human Resources of the Forest Industry Region in Heilongjiang Province Based on SWOT Analysis. Procedia Environ. Sci., 12: 1034-1039. (6 pages).
Rezakhani, P.; Zaredar, N., (2011). Indoor winter recreational site selection in arid and semi-arid mountainous regions. International Conference on Environmental Science and Development Proceeding Book 220-223. (4 pages).
Rosen, R., (2003). Strategic Management. Pearson Education Limited: 123-130. (8 pages).
Sariisik, M.; Turkay, O.; Akova O., (2011). How to manage yacht tourism in Turkey: A swot analysis and related strategies. Procedia – Soc. Behav. Sci., 24: 1014-1025. (12 pages).
Sims, K. R.E., (2011). Conservation and development: Evidence from Thai protected areas. J. Environ. Econ. Manage., 60:94–114. (20 pages).
Svekli, M.; Oztekin, A.; Uysal, O.; Torlak, G.; Turkyilmaz, A.; Delen, D., (2012). Development of a fuzzy ANP based SWOT analysis for airline industry in Turkey. Expert Syst. Appl., 39: 14-24. (11 pages).
Tuvi, E.-L.; Vellak, A.; Reier Ü.; Szava-Kovats, R.; Pärtel, M., (2011). Establishment of protected areas in different ecoregions, ecosystems, and diversity hotspots under successive political systems. Bio. Conserv., 144: 1726-1732 (7 pages).
Zaredar, N.; Kheirkhah Zarkesh, M.; Jozi, S. A.; Ghadirpour, A. (2010). Investigation of fuzzy as well as Boolean logics application in land evaluation (case study: TALEGHAN basin-Iran), International Conference on Environmental and Agriculture Engineering (ICEAE), Japan  (6 pages).
Zhang X.M., (2012). Research on the Development Strategies of Rural Tourism in Suzhou Based on SWOT Analysis. Energy Procedia 16: 1295-1299 (6 pages).
Zohary M., (1973). Geobotanical Foundations of the Middle East. 2 vols. Gustav Fischer Verlag Press, Stuttgart, Swets and Zeitlinger, Amsterdam.

Letters to Editor

GJESM Journal welcomes letters to the editor for the post-publication discussions and corrections which allows debate post publication on its site, through the Letters to Editor. Letters pertaining to manuscript published in GJESM should be sent to the editorial office of GJESM within three months of either online publication or before printed publication, except for critiques of original research. Following points are to be considering before sending the letters (comments) to the editor.

[1] Letters that include statements of statistics, facts, research, or theories should include appropriate references, although more than three are discouraged.
[2] Letters that are personal attacks on an author rather than thoughtful criticism of the author’s ideas will not be considered for publication.
[3] Letters can be no more than 300 words in length.
[4] Letter writers should include a statement at the beginning of the letter stating that it is being submitted either for publication or not.
[5] Anonymous letters will not be considered.
[6] Letter writers must include their city and state of residence or work.
[7] Letters will be edited for clarity and length.