Document Type: ORIGINAL RESEARCH PAPER

Authors

1 College of Geography and Tourism, Qufu Normal University, Rizhao 276826, Shandong, P.R. China

2 National Marine Environmental Forecasting Center, Beijing 100081, P.R. China

Abstract

Compared with USA, UK, Brazil, Indonesia, Australia, etc., marine debris research in China has received less attention and few studies have attempted to quantify the abundance and mass of marine debris. In this paper, the abundance, composition and source of beached marine debris, and debris collection system and frequency as well as dustbins’ conditionwere investigated in Duodaohai, Wanpingkou, Shanhaitian and National Forest Park beaches of Rizhao City from June 1 to 10, 2013. Based on these surveys, following conclusions were obtained: In four coastal beaches surveyed, the mean number and weight densities were 25.91 items/100m2 and 341.39 g/100m2, respectively. Most of the BMD in the aforementioned beaches originated directly from land sources. There were two kinds of debris collection systems in these beaches at present; dustbins sometimes were not enough to be used in the swimming period.We hope that our study will be helpful to raise the level of environmental consciousness among people and to expand their anti-debris activities.

Keywords

Abu-Hilal, A.H.; Al-Najjar, T.,(2004). Litter pollution on the Jordanian shores of the Gulf of Aqaba (Red Sea). Mar. Environ. Res., 58: 39-63 (25 pages).

Aliani, S.; Griffa, A.; Molcard, A.,(2003).Floating debris in the Ligurian Sea, north-western Mediterranean. Mar. Pollut. bull., 46: 1142-1149 (8 pages).

Araújo, M.C.B.; Santos, P.J.P.; Costa, M.F.,(2006). Ideal width of transects for monitoring source-related categories of plastics on beaches. Mar. Pollut. bull., 52: 957-961 (5 pages).

Ballance, A.; Ryan, P.G.; Turpie, J.K.,(2000). How much is a clean beach worth? The impact of litter on beach users in the Cape Peninsula, South Africa. S. Afr. J. Sci., 96: 210–213 (4 pages).

Bauer, L.J.; Kendall, M.S.; Jeffrey, C.F.G.,(2008).Incidence of marine debris and its relationships with benthic features in Gray’s Reef National Maine Sanctuary, Southeast USA. Mar. Pollut. bull., 56: 402-413 (12 pages).

Benton, T.G.,(1995). From castaways to throwaways: marine litter in the Pitcairn Islands. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 56: 415-422 (8 pages).

Bond, A.L.; Jones, I.L.; Williams, J.C.; Byrd, G.V.,(2010). Auklet chick meals from the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, have a very long low incidence of plastic marine debris. Mar. Pollut. bull., 60: 1346-1349 (4 pages).

Bowman, D.; Manor-Samsonov, N.; Golik, A.,(1998). Dynamics of litter pollution of Israeli Mediterranean beaches: a budgetary, litter flux approach. J. Coastal Res., 14: 418-432 (15 pages).

Bravo, M.; de los Ángeles Gallardo, M.; Luna-Jorquera, G.; Núñez, P.; Vásquez, N.; Thiel, M.,(2009). Anthropogenic debris on beaches in the SE Pacific (Chile): Results from a national survey supported by volunteers. Mar. Pollut. bull., 58: 1718-1726 (9 pages).

Carson, H.S.; Colbert, S.L.; Kaylor, M.J.; McDermid, K.J.,(2011). Small plastic debris changes water movement and heat transfer through beach sediments. Mar. Pollut. bull., 62: 1708-1713 (6 pages).

Carson, H.S.; Lamson, M.R.; Nakashima, D.; Toloumu, D.; Hafner, J.; Maximenko, N.; McDermid, K.J.,(2013). Tracking the sources and sinks of local marine debris in Hawai’i. Mar. Environ. Res., 84: 76-83 (8 pages).

Chaparro, R.; Velez, J.,(1997). Upland sources of marine debris on the shorelines of Puerto Rico. In: Coe, J.M.; Rogers, D.B. (Eds.), Marine Debris: Sources, Impacts and Solutions. Springer, New York., 367-370 (4 pages).

Chen, J.H.; Chen, C.M.,(2010). An empirical study on sorting treatment of domestic waste on a small island of West Coast of Taiwan Strait-Taking Nanri Island of Fujian province as an example. Ocean Dev. Manag., 17 (3): 59-63. (5 pages)

Cheshire, A.C.; Adler, E.; Barbière, J.; Cohen, Y.; Evans, S.; Jarayabhand, S.; Jeftic, L.;Jung,R.T.; Kinsey, S.; Kusui, E.T.; Lavine, I.; Manyara, P.; Oosterbaan, L.; Pereira,M.A.; Sheavly, S.; Tkalin, A.; Varadarajan, S.; Wenneker, B.; Westphalen, G., (2009). UNEP/IOC Guidelines on Survey and Monitoring of Marine Litter. UNEP Regional Seas Reports and Studies, No. 186; IOC Technical Series No. 83(xii + 120)

Cho, D.O.,(2009). The incentive program for fishermen to collect marine debris in Korea. Mar. Pollut. bull., 58: 415-417 (3 pages).

Claereboudt, M.R.,(2004). Shore litter along sandy beaches of the Gulf of Oman. Mar. Pollut. Bull., 49: 770-777 (8 pages).

Convey, P.; Barnes, D.K.A.; Morton, A.,(2002). Debris accumulation on oceanic island shores of the Scotia Arc, Antarctica. Polar Biol., 25: 612-617 (6 pages).

Corbin, C.J.; Singh, J.G.,(1993).Marine Debris contamination of beachesin St. Lucia and Dominica. Mar. Pollut. bull., 26: 325-328 (4 pages).

Costa, M.; Silva, J.S.; Araujo, M.C.B.; Leal, M.M.V, Barbosa, S.C.T.; Souza, S.T.; Guedes, S.Z.,(2005). Solid wastes contamination on tropical beaches: the case of Pernambuco State, northeast Brazil. In: Proceedings of the Rivers to Sea Conference, Redondo Beach, California, USA.http://conference.plasticdebris.org/whitepapers.html.

Croxall, J., (1997). Research and Conservation: a future for albatross? In: Robertson, G.; Gales, R. (Eds.), The Albatross: Biology and Conservation. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Australia, 269-290 (22 pages).

Cunningham, D.J.; Wilson, S.P.,(2003).Marine debris on beaches of the greater Sydney region. J. Coastal Res., 19: 421-430 (10 pages).

Dameron, O.J.; Parke, M.; Albins, M.A.; Brainard, R., (2007). Maine debris accumulation in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands: An examination of rates and processes. Mar. Pollut. bull., 54: 423-433 (11 pages).

Derraik, J.G.B., (2002). The pollution of the marine environment by plastic debris: a review. Mar. Pollut. bull., 44: 842-852 (11 pages).

Eriksson, C.; Burton, H.; Fitch, S.; Schulz, M.; Van den Hoff, J., (2013). Daily accumulation rates of marine debris on sub-Antarctic island beaches. Mar. Pollut. bull., 66: 199-208 (10 pages).

Evans, S.M.; Dawson, M.; Day, J.; Frid, C.L.J.; Gill, M.E.; Pattisina, L.A.; Porter, J., (1995). Domestic waste and TBT pollution in coastal areas of Ambon Island (Eastern Indonesia). Mar. Pollut. bull., 30: 109-115 (7 pages).

Fan, Z,J., (1997). The monitoring methods of the drifting debris in the marine environment. Mar. Environ. Sci., 16(2): 42-45 (4 pages).

Foster-Smith, J.; Birchenough, A.C.; Evans, S.M.; Prince, J., (2007).Human impacts on Cable Beach, Broome (Western Australia). Coastal Manage., 35: 181-194 (14 pages).

Fujieda, S.; Sasaki, K., (2005).Stranded debris of foamed plastic on the coast of Eta Island and Kurahashi Island in Hiroshima Bay. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 71: 755-761 (7 pages).

Garrity, S.D.; Levings, S.C., (1993).Marine debris along the Caribbean coast of Panama. Mar. Pollut. bull., 26: 317-324 (8 pages).

Gnanavel, G.; MohanaJeyaValli, VP.;Thirumarimurugan, M., (2012). A review of biodegradation of plastics waste. Int. J. Pharm. Chem. Sci., 1(3): 670-673 (4 pages).

Gregory, M.R.; Ryan, P.G., (1997). Pelagic plastics and other seaborne persistent synthetic debris: a review of Southern Hemisphere perspectives. In: Coe, J.M.; Rogers, D.B. (Eds.), Marine Debris – Sources, Impacts and Solutions. Springer-Verlag, New York, 49–66 (18 pages).

Guo, F.; Li, Z.E.; Qin, Y.T.; Fan, H.M., (2014).Analyses of distribution, composition and sources of marine debris in Shanghai City. Mar. Dev. Manage. 9: 110-113 (4 pages).

Han, W.T.; Wu, Q.Q.; Gao, X.Z., (2010). Preliminary study on investigation of beach and marine debris in Weifang City. Fisheries Sci. Tech. 2: 30-32 (3 pages).

Haynes, D., (1997). Marine debris on continental islands and sand cays in the Far Northern Section of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, Australia. Mar. Pollut. bull., 34: 276-279 (4 pages).

Hinojosa, I.A.; Thiel, M., (2009).Floating marine debris in fjords, gulfs and channels of southern Chile. Mar. Pollut. bull., 58: 341-350 (10 pages).

Hong, S.; Lee, J.; Jang, Y.C.; Kim, Y.J.; Kim, H.J.; Han, D.; Hong, S.H.; Kang, D.; Shim, W.J., (2013). Impacts of marine debris on wild animals in the coastal area of Korea. Mar. Pollut. bull., 66: 117-124 (8 pages).

Howell, E.A.; Bograd, S.J.; Morishige, C.; Seki, M.P.; Polovina, J.J., (2012). On North Pacific Circulation and associated marine debris concentration. Mar. Pollut. bull., 65: 16-22 (7 pages).

Huin, N.; Croxall, J.P., (1996). Fishing gear, oil and marine debris associated with seabirds at Bird Island, South Georgia, during 1993/4. Mar. Ornithology, 24: 19–22 (4 pages).

Iver do Sul, J.A.; Costa, M.F., (2007). Marine debris review for Latin America and the Wider Caribbean Region: From the 1970s until now, and where do we go from here? Mar. Pollut. bull., 54: 1087-1104 (18 pages).

Jackson, N.L.; Cerrato, M.L.; Elliot, N., (1997). Geography and fieldwork at these condary school level: an investigation of anthropogenic litter on an estuarine shoreline. . Geogr., 96: 301–306. (6 pages)

Jantz, L.A.; Morishige, C.L.; Bruland, G.L.; Lepczyk, C.A., (2013).Ingestion of plastic marine debris by longnose lancet fish in the North Pacific Ocean. Mar. Pollut. bull., 69: 97-104 (8 pages).

Kataoka, T.; Hinata, H.; Kako, S., (2012). Anew technique for detecting colored macro plastic debris on beaches using webcam images and CIELUV. Mar. Pollut. bull., 64: 1829-1836 (8 pages).

Keller, A.A.; Fruh, E.L.; Johnson, M.M.; Simon, V.; McGourty, C., (2010).Distribution and abundance of anthropogenic marine debris along the shelf and slope of the US West Coast. Mar. Pollut. bull., 60: 692-700 (9 pages).

Khairunnisa, A.K.; Fauziah, S.H.; Agamuthu, P., (2012).Marine debris composition andabundance.A case study of selected beaches in Port Dickson, Malaysia.Aquat.Ecosyst. Health Manage. 15: 279-286 (7 pages).

Kusui, T.; Noda, M., (2003). International survey on the distribution of stranded and buried litter on beaches along the Sea of Japan. Mar. Pollut. bull., 47: 175–179 (5 pages).

Laist, D.W.; Coe, J.M.; O’Hara, K., (1999).Marine debris pollution. In: Twiss, J.R.; Reeves, R.R. (Eds.), Conservation and Management of Marine Mammals. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington., 342–366 (25 pages).

Lara-Domınguez, A.L.; Villalobos Zapata, G.J.; Rivera Arriaga, E.; VeraHerrera, F.;AlvarezGuillen, H., (1994). Origen de los desechossolidosenlas playas de Campeche, Mexico. Rev. Sociedad Mexicana deHistoriaNatur., 45: 133–142 (10 pages).

Lazar, B.; Gracan, R., (2011).Ingestion of marine debris by loggerhead sea turtles, Carettacaretta, in the Adriatic Sea. Mar. Pollut. bull., 62: 43-47 (5 pages).

Leal, M.M.V., (2002). ‘‘Educacao de casa vaiapraia’’: percepcaodeveranistas e turistas da praia do Pilar – Itamaraca/PE quanto a problematica do lixo. Monograph, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, 54.

Lebreton, L.C.M.; Greer, S.D.; Borrero, J.C., (2012).Numerical modeling of floating debris in the world’s oceans. Mar. Pollut. bull., 64: 653-661 (9 pages).

Li, W.L., (2009). Investigation and Countermeasures of floating waste pollution in Xiamen-Jinmen Sea Area. Environ. Sanitation Eng., 17(2): 46-51 (66 pages).

Liebezeit, G., (2008). Marine litter on the Kachelotplate, Lower SaxonianWadden Sea.Senckenbergiana maritime, 38(2): 147-151 (5 pages).

Lobelle, D.; Cunliffe, M., (2011).Early microbial biofilm formation on marine plastic debris. Mar. Pollut. bull., 62: 197-200 (4 pages).

Martins, J.; Sobral, P., (2011). Plastic marine debris on the Portuguese coastline: A matter of size? Mar. Pollut. bull., 62: 2649-2653 (5 pages).

Martens, J.; Huntington, B.E., (2012).Creating a GIS-based model of marine debris “hot spots” to improve efficiency of a lobster trap debris removal program. Mar. Pollut. bull., 64: 949-955 (7 pages).

Maximenko, N.; Hafner, J.; Niiler, P., (2012). Pathways of marine debris derived from trajectories of Lagrangian drifters. Mar. Pollut. bull., 65: 51-62 (12 pages).

McDermid, K.J.; McMullen, T.L., (2004).Quantitative analysis of small-plastic debris on beaches in the Hawaiian archipelago. Mar. Pollut. bull., 48: 790-794 (5 pages).

Nagelkerken, I.; Wiltjer, G.A.M.T.; Debrot, A.O.; Pors, L.P.J.J., (2001).Baseline study of submerged marine debris at beaches in Curacao, West Indies. Mar. Pollut. bull., 42 (9): 786-789 (4 pages).

Nakashima, E.; Isobe, A.; Magome, S.; Kako, S.; Deki, N.,(2011).Using aerial photography and in situ measurements to estimate the quantity of macro-litter on beaches. Mar. Pollut. Bull., 62: 762–769 (8 pages).

Oigman-Pszczol, S.S.; Creed, J.C., (2007).Quantification and classification of marine litter on beaches along Armcao dos Buzios, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. J. Coastal Res., 23: 421-428 (8 pages).

Otley, H.; Ingham, R.,(2003). Marine debris surveys at Volunteer Beach, Falkland Islands, during the summer of 2001/02. Mar. Pollut. bull., 46: 1534-1539 (6 pages).

Potemra, J.T., (2012). Numerical modeling with application to tracking marine debris. Mar. Pollut. bull., 65: 42-50 (9 pages).

Rafee, N.; Karbassi, A.R.; Nouri, J.; Safari, E.; Mehrdadi, M., (2008).Strategic management of municipal debris aftermath of an earthquake. Int. J. Environ. Res., 2(2): 205-214 (10 pages).

Raum-Suryan, K.L.; Jemison, L.A.; Pitcher, K.W., (2009). Entanglement of Steller sea lions in marine debris: Identifying causes and finding solutions. Mar. Pollut. bull., 58: 1487-1495 (14 pages).

Rees, G.; Pond, K., (1995).Marine litter monitoring programs – a review of methods with special reference to national surveys. Mar. Pollut. Bull., 30: 103-108 (6 pages).

Ribic, C.A.; Johnson, S.W.; Cole, C.A., (1997).Distribution, type, accumulation and source of marine debris in the United States, 1989–1993. In: Coe, J.M.; Rogers, D.B. (Eds.), Marine Debris-Sources, Impacts and Solutions. Springer-Verlag, New York, 35–47 (18 pages).

Ribic, C.A.; Sheavly, S.B.; Klavitter, J., (2012).Baseline for beached marine debris on Sand Island, Midway Atoll. Mar. Pollut. Bull., 64: 1726–1729 (4 pages).

Rosevelt, C.; Huertos, M.L.; Garza, C.; Nevins, H.M., (2013). Marine debris in central California: Quantifying type and abundance of beach litter in Monterey Bay, CA. Mar. Pollut. Bull.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2013.01.015

Ryan, P.G.; Moore, C.J.; Van Franeker, J.A.; Moloney, C.L., (2009).Monitoring the abundance of plastic debris in the marine environment.Philoso. T. Roy. Soc. B., 364: 1999-2012 (14 pages).

Santos, I.R.; Friedrich, A.C.; Duarte, E., (2003).Percepcessobre o lixonapraia do Cassino, RS, Brasil. Mundo and Vida, 4: 11–17 (7 pages).

Santos, I.R.; Friedrich, A.C, Ivar do Sul, J.A., (2009). Marine debris contamination alongundeveloped tropical beaches from northeast Brazil. Environ. Monit.Assess., 148: 455-462 (8 pages).

Sheavly, S.B., (2005). Sixth Meeting of the UN Open-ended Informal Consultative Process on Oceans and the Law of the Sea. Marine Debris - An Overview of a Critical Issue for Our Oceans., 6–10 June 2005.

 http://www.un.org/Depts/los/consultative_process/consultative_process.htm.

Sheavly, S.B.; Register, K.M., (2007).Marine Debris & Plastics, Environmental Concerns, Sources, Impacts and Solutions. J. Poly. Environ., 15: 301-305 (5 pages).

Silva-Iniguez, L.; Fischer, D.W., (2003).Quantification and classification of marine litter on the municipal beach of Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico. Mar. Pollut. bull., 46: 132-138 (7 pages).

Singh, J.G.; Xavier, B., (1997).Land-based sources of Marine Debris and contamination of the coastal areas of the Caribbean Islands of St. Lucia, Dominica, and the British Virgin Islands. In: Coe, J.M.; Rogers, D.B. (Eds.), Marine Debris: Sources, Impacts and Solutions. Springer, New York., 371-380 (10 pages).

Smith, S.D.A., (2012). Marine debris: a proximate threat to marine sustainability in Bootless Bay, Papua New Guinea. Mar. Pollut. Bull., 64: 1880-1883 (4 pages).

Soares, A.M.; Costa, M.F.; Silva, J.S.; Araujo, M.B.C., (2007).Contaminaco da linha-do-deixa da praia da Boa Viagem (Recife-PE) porresıduossolidos no verao de 2005: uma nova metodologiadeavaliaco. In: Proceedings of the XII Colacmar. Florianopolis, Brazil.

Storrier, K.L.; McGlashan, D.J., (2006). Development and management of a coastal litter campaign: the voluntary coastal partnership approach. Mar. Polic., 30:189-196 (7 pages).

Su, R.; Wu, J,W.; Dong, W.F., (2011). Study on the potential ecological risk by drifting debris from Xiamen Sea Area. Environ. Sci. Manage., 36(3): 24-26 (3 pages).

Thiel, M.; Hinojosa, I.; Vasquez, N.; Macaya, E., (2003).Floating marine debris in coastal waters of the SE-Pacific (Chile). Mar. Pollut. bull., 46: 224-231 (8 pages).

Thornton, L.; Jackson, N., (1998). Spatial and temporal variations in debris accumulation and composition on an estuarine shoreline, Cliff wood Beach, New Jersey, USA. Mar. Pollut. bull., 36(9): 705-711 (7 pages).

United Nations Environmental Programme, 2011a.http://www.unep.org/regionalseas/ marinelitter/ (accessed 08.16.11).

Velander, K.A.; Mocogni, M., (1999). Beach litter sampling strategies: is there a ‘best’ method? Mar. Pollut. bull., 38: 1134-1140 (7 pages).

Viehman, S.; Vander Pluym, J.L.; Schellinger, J., (2011).Characterization of marine debris in North Carolina salt marshes. Mar. Pollut. Bull., 62: 2771–2779 (9 pages).

Votier, S.C.; Archibald, K.; Morgan, G.; Morgan, L., (2011).The use of plastic debris as nesting material by a colonial seabird and associated entanglement mortality. Mar. Pollut. Bull., 62: 168-172 (5 pages).

Wade, B.A.; Morrison, B.; Jones, M.A.J., (1991).A study of beach litter in Jamaica. Caribbean J. Sci., 27: 190-197 (8 pages).

Wetzel, L.; Fillmann, G.; Niencheski, L.F.H., (2004). Litter contamination on the Brazilian southern coast: processes and management perspectives. Int. J. Environ. Pollut., 21: 153-164 (12 pages).

Widmer, W.M.; Soriano-Sierra, E.J.; Hennemann, M.; Carrero, G., (2004).Patterns of marine debris on sandy beaches on the Island of Santa Catarina, South Brazil. In: Proceedings of II SimposioBrasileiro de Oceanografia, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Williams, R.; Ashe, E.; O’Hara, P.K., (2011).Marine mammals and debris in coastal waters of British Columbia, Canada. Mar. Pollut. Bull., 62: 1303-1316 (14 pages).

Whiting, S.D., (1998).Types and sources of marine debris in Fog Bay, Northern Australia. Mar. Pollut. bull., 36: 904–910 (7 pages).

Zheng, Y.; Yanful, E.K.; Bassi, A.S., (2005).A review of Plastic waste biodegradation. Cr. Rev. Biotech., 25: 243-250 (8 pages).

Zhou, P.; Huang, C.G.; Fang, H.D.; Cai, W.X.; Li, D.M.; Li, X.M.; Yu, H.S., (2011). The abundance, composition and sources of marine debris in coastal seawaters or beaches around the northern South China Sea (China). Mar. Pollut. bull., 62: 1998-2007 (10 pages).


Letters to Editor


GJESM Journal welcomes letters to the editor for the post-publication discussions and corrections which allows debate post publication on its site, through the Letters to Editor. Letters pertaining to manuscript published in GJESM should be sent to the editorial office of GJESM within three months of either online publication or before printed publication, except for critiques of original research. Following points are to be considering before sending the letters (comments) to the editor.

[1] Letters that include statements of statistics, facts, research, or theories should include appropriate references, although more than three are discouraged.
[2] Letters that are personal attacks on an author rather than thoughtful criticism of the author’s ideas will not be considered for publication.
[3] Letters can be no more than 300 words in length.
[4] Letter writers should include a statement at the beginning of the letter stating that it is being submitted either for publication or not.
[5] Anonymous letters will not be considered.
[6] Letter writers must include their city and state of residence or work.
[7] Letters will be edited for clarity and length.

CAPTCHA Image