Document Type : CASE STUDY


Graduate Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 1417853111, Tehran, Iran


In this study, the concentrations of heavy metals (Ca, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni) in thesediment of Shavoor River in Khuzestan Province in Iran has been investigated. After the library studies and field studies, six samples of water and sediment were taken from the river in order to evaluate heavy metal pollution in sediments. To determine the geochemical phases of metals in sediment samples the 5-step method was used for chemical separation. For quantitative assessment of the severity of contamination in the sediments, the geochemical indicators such as enriched factor (EF) and the accumulation index (Igeo) were used. Also, the statistical analyses including methods such as correlation analysis cluster analysis the (CA), were conducted.The results of the experiments showed that the organic matter deposited varies with the average of 2.49 and ranges between 1.95% and 3.43%. Samples showed concentrations of metals such as calcium, iron, manganese, copper and nickel at all the sampling points were below the global average, whereas the concentration of copper was slightly higher than the global scale. Enriched factor (EF) was calculated for the elements revealed that heavy metals are classified as non-infected. The Geo-accumulation Index showed that the studied elements were uninfected peers. Based on the results of multivariate statistical analysis it was concluded that metals such as manganese, copper, iron, nickel and zinc are mainly natural and calcium metal is likely to have an organic origin.


Berkowitz, B.; Dror, I.; Yaron, B., (2008). Contaminant Geochemistry: Interactions and Transport in the Subsurface Environment, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. 412 p.
Bowen, H.J.M., (1979). “Environmental Chemistry of the Elements.” Academic, London, New York, Toronto, 333 p.
Borja, A.; Valencia, V.; Franco, J.; Muxika, I.; Bald, J.; Belzunce, M. J.; Solaun, O., (2004). The water framework directive: water alone, or in association with sediment and biota, in determining quality standards. Mar. Pollut. Bull., (1-2): 8-11 (4 pages).
Caeiro, S.; Costa, M.H.; Ramos, T.B.; Fernandes, F.; Silveira, N.; Coimbra, A. ; Medei ros, G.; Painho, M., (2005). Assessing heavy metal contamination in Sado Estuary sediment: An index analysis approach. Ecol. Indicators, (5): 151-169 (19 pages).
Chen, S.Y.; Lin, J.G., (2001). Bioleaching of heavy metals from sediment: significance pH, Chemosphere, (4): 1093-1102 (10 pages).
Chester, R.; Hughes, M., (1967). A chemical technique for the separation of ferromanganese minerals, carbonate minerals and adsorbed trace elements from Pelagic sediments. J. Chem. Geo., (2): 242-262 (21 pages).
Espinoza-Quinones, F.R.; Zacarkim, C.E.; Palacio, S.M.; Obregón, C.L.; Zenatti, D.C.; Galante, R.M., (2005). Removal of heavy metal from polluted river water using aquatic macrophytes Salvinia sp. Brazilian J. Physics., 35(3B): 744-746 (3 pages).
Everitt, B., (1980). “Cluster Analysis”., 2nd edtion. New York, p.601.
Hamed, M.A.; Emara, A.M., (2006). Marine molluscs as biomonitors for heavy metal levels in the Gulf of Suez, Red
Sea. J. Marine Sys., (60): 220–234 (15 pages).
Helling, D., (1990). Sediments and environmental geochemistry. Springer Verlag, New York.
Hernandez, L.; Probst, A.; Probst, J.L.; Ulrich, E., (2003). Heavy metal distribution in some French forest soils: evidence for atmospheric contamination, Sci. Total Environ., (312): 195-219 (25 pages).
Izquierdo, C.; Usero, J.; Gracia, I., (1997). Speciation of heavy metals in sediments from salt marshes on the southern Atlantic Coast of Spain, Mar. Pollut. Bull., 34(2): 123-128 (6 pages).
Karbassi, A.R., (1998). Geochemistry of Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb, Co, Cd, V, Mn, Fe, Al and Ca in sediments of North Western part of the Persian Gulf, Int. J. Environ. Stud., (54): 205–212 (8 pages).
Karbassi, A.R.; Heidari, M., (2015). An investigation on role of salinity, pH and DO on heavy metals elimination throughout estuarial mixture, Global J. Environ. Sci. Manage., 1 (1): 41-46 (6 pages).
Karbassi, A.; Nabi Bidhendi, G.R.; Saeedi, M.; Rastegari, A., (2010). Metals removal during estuarine mixing of Arvand River water with the Persian Gulf water, Central European J. Geosci., 2 (4): 531-536 (6 pages).
Karbasi, A.; Valavi , S., (2010). Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Bamdedj Marsh Sediment (Khuzestan Province) by Muller’s Geochemical Index, J. Environ. Stud., 36(54): 1-10 (10 pages).
Prabu, P.C., (2009). Impact of heavy metal contamination of Akaki River of Ethiopia on soil and metal toxicity on cultivated vegetable crops, Elect. J. Environ. Agri. Food Chem., 8 (9): 818-827 (10 pages).
Veerasingam, S.; Raja, P.; Venkatachalapathy, R.; Mohan, R.; Sutharsan, P., (2010). Distribution of petroleum hydrocarbon concentration in coastal sediment along Tamilnadu Coast, India. Carpathian J. Earth Environ. Sci., (5): 5-8 (4 pages).
Yu, K.C.; Tsal, L.J.; Chen, S.H.; Ho, S.T., (2001). Chemical binding of heavy metals in anionic river sediments, Water Res., 35 (17): 4086-4096 (11 pages).

Letters to Editor

GJESM Journal welcomes letters to the editor for the post-publication discussions and corrections which allows debate post publication on its site, through the Letters to Editor. Letters pertaining to manuscript published in GJESM should be sent to the editorial office of GJESM within three months of either online publication or before printed publication, except for critiques of original research. Following points are to be considering before sending the letters (comments) to the editor.

[1] Letters that include statements of statistics, facts, research, or theories should include appropriate references, although more than three are discouraged.
[2] Letters that are personal attacks on an author rather than thoughtful criticism of the author’s ideas will not be considered for publication.
[3] Letters can be no more than 300 words in length.
[4] Letter writers should include a statement at the beginning of the letter stating that it is being submitted either for publication or not.
[5] Anonymous letters will not be considered.
[6] Letter writers must include their city and state of residence or work.
[7] Letters will be edited for clarity and length.