1 Department of Environmental Science, Postgraduate School of Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

2 Department of Geographic Information Science, Faculty of Geography, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

3 Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The research aimed to evaluate the water quality of the Cangkring River in Tuban Regency, East Java Province, Indonesia, at the segment near the oil and gas fields (Mudi Pad A, B, and C).
METHODS: Water samples were collected from January to September 2021 at seven locations along the river segment and tested ex-situ using six parameters, including physical, chemical, and microbiological. The pollution index formula was used to calculate, determine, and analyze the river water quality status. Samples at three locations were further tested with 13 additional chemical parameters due to potential contamination by other substances as they were located the closest to the production site and office area.
FINDINGS: Sample analysis with six parameters showed a pollution index value of 0.558 or within the predefined standard at one location (SW6) and 1.080–2.721 at the other six locations, indicating slight pollution. Another test at three selected locations (i.e., SW1, SW2, and SW7) with 13 additional parameters increased the pollution index to 5.556–6.170 (moderate pollution). This status change was due to the high presence of nitrite and ammonia in the water samples.
CONCLUSION: The oil and gas industry near the Cangkring River has strictly complied with the regulations in treating their produced water. However, it still contains a high amount of nitrite and ammonia, moderately polluting the river water. Therefore, it is necessary to regularly test the river water near oil and gas fields to ensure its quality and safety.

Graphical Abstract

Environmental assessment of river water quality near oil and gas fields


  • Environmental assessment using the Pollution Index (PI) method has been used to determine if the produced water of the oil and gas industry meets the quality standards for certain purposes;
  • River water near the oil and gas fields is slightly polluted;
  • Another water quality test using additional chemical parameters has found that the nitrite and ammonia levels exceeded their maximum allowable presence, causing the water quality status to increase from slightly to moderately polluted;
  • The high nitrite and ammonia levels do not endanger human’s health (not carcinogenic), and the river can still be utilized for agricultural irrigation water supply.


Main Subjects


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