Document Type : CASE STUDY


1 Department of Information Management, College of Informatics, Chaoyang University of Technology, Taichung City, Taiwan

2 Department of Statistics, College of Natural Science, Seoul National University 56-1 Mountain, Sillim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul metrópolis, Korea

3 Bioinformatics and Data Science Research Center, Bina Nusantara University, DKI Jakarta, Indonesia

4 Polytechnic Statistics, DKI Jakarta, Indonesia

5 Department of Mathematics, Kalimantan Institute of Technology, Kalimantan Timur, Indonesia

6 Department of Mathematics, Universitas Sumatera Utara, North Sumatera, Indonesia

7 Department of Statistics, Padjadjaran University, West Java, Indonesia.

8 Computer Science Department, BINUS Graduate Program Master of Computer Science Bina Nusantara University, DKI Jakarta, Indonesia


COVID-19 has a severe and widespread impact, especially in Indonesia. COVID-19 was first reported in Indonesia on March 03, 2020 then rapidly spread to all 34  provinces by April 09, 2020.  Since then, COVID-19 is declared a state of national disaster and health emergency. This research analyzes the difference of CO, HCHO, NO2, and SO2 density in Jakarta, West Java, Central Java, and South Sulawesi  before and during the pandemic. Also, this study assesses the effect of large scale restrictions on the economic growth during COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia. In a nutshell, the results on Wilcoxon and Fisher test by significance level α=5% as well as odds ratio showed that there are significant differences of CO density in all regions with highest odds ratio in East Java (OR=9.07), significant differences of HCHO density in DKI Jakarta, East Java, and South Sulawesi. There are significant differences of NO2 density before and during public activities limitation in DKI Jakarta, West Java, East Java, and South Sulawesi. However, the results show that there are no significant differences of SO2 density in all regions. In addition, this research shows that there are significant differences of retail, grocery and pharmacy, and residental mobility  before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia.  This research also shows that during the COVID-19 pandemic there are severe economic losses, industry, companies, and real disruptions are severe for all levels of life due to large scale restrictions.

Graphical Abstract

Impact of COVID-19 large scale restriction on environment and economy in Indonesia


  • Wilcoxon test, ODDS ratio, fisher test, and graph visualization provide the same conclusions related to our environment variables;
  • COVID-19 affect the environmental, especially CO in all of region, NO2 (West Java, East Java, and South Sulawesi), HCHO (DKI Jakarta, East Java, and South Sulawesi);
  • Nevertheless no significant difference regarding SO2 in all of region;
  • The higher the HCHO will increase the risk of contracting COVID-19;
  • COVID-19 also changes population mobility in each province. COVID-19 significant affect the GDP Growth, Exchange rate IDR to USD, and IHSG.


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©2021 The author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, as long as the original authors and source are cited. No permission is required from the authors or the publishers.

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