Document Type: ORIGINAL RESEARCH PAPER

Authors

1 Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Environment and Resource Development, Egerton University, Njoro, Kenya

2 Environmental Science, Faculty of Environment and Resource Development, Egerton University, Njoro, Kenya.

3 Watamu Marine Association, Watamu, Kenya

Abstract

Among the emerging environmental issues within Sub-Saharan Africa is the haphazard disposal of plastic waste, some of which end up downstream in the marine environment leading to negative effects. Notably there have been cases of humpback whales getting entangled in ‘ghost’ fishing nets, and endangered turtles ingesting plastic wastes in Watamu beach in Kenya. The aim of the current study was to assess the composition and management of plastic waste discarded by households in Watamu ward. Stratified random sampling was used to collect data from households in four sub-locations within Watamu ward. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics (the Freeman-Halton extension of the Fisher’s Exact test). The composition of plastics usually discarded as waste by households in order of dominance were low density polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate, high density polyethylene and polypropylene (FH=37.959, p = 0.000). From the results, only 0.7% of respondents recycled their plastic waste. The most preferred disposal method of household plastic waste was open dumpsites (61.4%) followed by burning (12.9%) and discards (6.4%). Majority of respondents (93.6%), re-use some plastic containers for food, water, and oil storage. There was a significant difference in terms of how the respondents re-used their plastic waste in the four sub-locations (FH=36.437, p=0.005). In conclusion, the current plastic waste disposal methods at Watamu are not environmentally friendly and recycling is still at a smaller scale despite its potential to generate income and clean the environment, and promote ecosystem services and human wellbeing.

Graphical Abstract

Highlights

  • Most of Watamu ward respondents discarded their plastic waste at the open dumpsite
  • Low density polyethylene and polyethylene terephthalate constituted over 90% of the plastic waste discarded by households in Watamu ward
  • Reuse of plastic materials was mainly for water storage and for storage of foodstuffs.

Keywords

Main Subjects

Aurah, C. M., (2013). Assessment of Extent to Which Plastic Bag Waste Management Methods Used in Nairobi City Promote Sustainability., Am. J. Environ. Protect., 1(4): 96–101 (6 pages).

Awiti, A.O.; Scott, B., (2016). The Kenya Youth Survey Report.  

Bahri, G., (2005). Sustainable management of plastic bag waste: The Case of Nairobi, Kenya. Lund University.

Banerjee, T.; Srivastava, R. K.; Hung, Y.-T., (2014). Plastics waste management in India : An integrated solid waste management approach, in handbook of environmental and waste management. 2nd edn. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co., 1–32 (32 pages).

Bashir, N. H. H., (2013). Plastic problem in Africa, Jpn J. Vet. Res., 61(Supplement): 1–11 (11 pages).

Bello, I. A.; bin Ismail, M. N.; Kabbashi, N. A., (2016). Solid Waste Management in Africa: A Review, Int. J. Waste Resour., 6(2): 1–4 (4 pages).

Bernache-Pérez, G.; Sánchez-Colón, S.; Garmendia, A. M.; Dávila-Villarreal, A.; Sánchez-Salazar, M. E., (2016). Solid waste characterisation study in the Guadalajara metropolitan zone, Mexico, Waste Manage Res, 19: 413–424 (12 pages).

Brems, A.; Baeyens, J.; Dewil, R., (2012). Recycling and recovery of post-consumer plastic solid waste in a European context, Thermal Science. Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, 16(3): 669–685 (17 pages).

Carter, C.; Garaway, C., (2014). Shifting tides, complex lives: The dynamics of fishing and tourism livelihoods on the Kenyan coast, Soc. Natur. Resour.: An International Journal, 27(6): 573–587 (15 pages).

County Government of Kilifi, (2018). County Integrated Development Plan 2018 – 2022: County Government of Kilifi.

EMCA-Amendment-Act, (2015). Nairobi: Government Printer.

Fobil, J. N.; Hogarh, J. N., (2009). The dilemmas of plastic wastes in a developing economy: Proposals for a sustainable management approach for Ghana, West Afr. J. appl. Ecol., 10 (1): 1-8 (8 pages).

Gitonga, J. W. (2018). Factors influencing sustainability of rural water. United States International University-Africa.

Gugssa, B.T., (2012). The cycle of solid waste: a case study on the informal plastic and metal recovery system in Accra. Uppsala University.

Hansen, E.; Nilsson, N. H.; Lithner, D.; Lassen, C., (2013). Hazardous substances in plastic materials. Vejle.

Horvath, B.; Mallinguh, E.; Fogarassy, C., (2018). Designing business solutions for plastic waste management to enhance circular transitions in Kenya, Sustainability, 10: 1–20 (20 pages).

Jambeck, J.R.; Geyer, R.; Wilcox, C.; Siegler, T. R.; Perryman, M.; Andrady, A.; Narayan, R.; Law, K. L.  (2015). Plastic waste inputs from land into the ocean, Science, 347(6223): 768–771 (4 pages).

KNCPC, (2006). A comprehensive plastic waste management strategy for the city of Nairobi. Nairobi: Kenya National Cleaner Production Centre.

Kershaw, P.; Katsuhiko, S.; Lee, S., (2011). Plastic debris in the ocean, in UNEP year book 2011: Emerging issues in our global environment. Nairobi: UNEP.

Lane, S. B.; Ahamada, S.; Gonzalves, C.; Lukambuzi, L.; Ochiewo, J.; Pereira, M.; Rasolofojaona, H.; Ryan, P.; Seewoobaduth, J., (2007). A Regional Overview & Assessment of Marine Litter Related Activities in the West Indian Ocean Region, Report to the United Nations Program, 1-91 (91 pages).

Merkl, A., (2016). Challenges, lessons learned, and best practices: a way forward to prevent, reduce and control marine debris, plastics and micro-plastics, in United Nations Informal Consultative Process on Oceans and the Law of the Sea. New York: Ocean Conservancy.

Mukui, S.J., (2013). Factors influencing household solid waste management in urban Nyeri Municipality, Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management, 6(3): 280–285 (6 pages).

NEMA, (2017). EMCA (Cap. 387). Nairobi: Republic of Kenya. National Environment Management Authority.

Ngugi, E., (2013). Exploring Kenya’s inequality. Nairobi.

Njonjo, K.S., (2013). Exploring Kenya’s inequality. Edited by J. Lakin and A. Zaidi. Ascent Limited.

Odhiambo, O. R.; Musalagani, A. C.; Lyanda, N. J.; Songok, J. R., (2014). The plastic waste menace in Kenya : A Nairobi city situation, Int. J. Curr. Res., 6(4): 6175–6179 (5 pages).

Oyake-Ombis, L.; van Vliet, B. J. M.; Mol, A. P. J., (2015). Managing plastic waste in East Africa: Niche innovations in plastic production and solid waste, Habitat Int., 48: 188–197 (10 pages).

PlasticsEurope, (2017). Plastics – the facts 2017.

Quartey, E. T.; Tosefa, H.; Danquah, K. A. B.;  Obrsalova, I., (2015). Theoretical framework for plastic waste management in Ghana through extended producer responsibility: Case of sachet water waste, Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 12: 9907–9919 (13 pages).

Remigios, M. V., (2010). An overview of the management practices at solid waste disposal sites in  African cities and towns, Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, 12(7): 233–239 (7 pages).

Rotich, H. K.; Yongsheng, Z.;  Jun, D., (2006). Municipal solid waste management challenges in developing countries – Kenyan case study, Waste Manage., 26: 92–100 (9 pages).

Seaman, G., (2012). Plastics by the numbers, Eartheasy.

Sebille, E. V.; Wilcox, C.; Lebreton, L.; Maximenko, N.; Hardesty, B. D.;  Franeker, J. A V.; Eriksen, M.; Siegel, D.; Galgani, F.; Law, K. L., (2015). A global inventory of small floating plastic debris, Environ. Res. Lett., 10(124006): 1–11 (11 pages).

Selin, E., (2013). Solid waste management and health effects - A qualitative study on awareness of risks and environmentally significant behavior in Mutomo, Kenya, Umeå Universiteit.

Swaleh, C. W.; Ombui, K.; Kagiri, A. (2015). Influence of service delivery strategies on customer satisfaction at the British High Commission in Kenya, International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 5(9): 1–13 (13 pages).

Tadesse, T.; Hadgu, S., (2009). Demand for improved solid waste collection services: A survey in Mekelle city, J. Drylands, 2(1): 32–39 (8 pages).

Thanh, N. P.; Matsui, Y.;  Fujiwara, T., (2011). Assessment of plastic waste generation and its potential recycling of household solid waste in Can Tho City, Vietnam, Environ. Monit. Assess., 175: 23–35 (13 pages).

Tsega, A.F., (2013). Institutional and community awareness on the environmental impact of solid waste management practice: The case of Shambu town, in Horo Guduru Wellega zone, Oromia regional state. Haramaya University.

Tychsen, J. (ed.), (2006). KenSea. Environmental sensitivity atlas for coastal area of Kenya. Copenhagen: Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).

UNIDO, (2009). Integrated assessment of present status of environmentally sound management of wastes in Africa.

UN Environment, (2018). The State of Plastics, World Environment Day Outlook.

Wachira, T. D.; Wairire, G. G.; Mwangi, S. W., (2014). Socio-economic hazards of plastic paper bags litter in peri-urban centres of Kenya; a case study conducted at Ongata Rongai township of Kajiado county, Int. J. Sci. Res. Innovative Technol., 1(5): 1–24 (25 pages).

Watkins, E.; ten Brink, P.; Withana, S.; Mutafoglu, K., Schweitzer, J.-P., Russi, D., Kettunen, M. (2015) Marine litter: socio-economic study., Scoping report, London/Brussels.

WTTC, (2015). Travel and tourism: economic impact. World Travel and Tourism Council, London.

Yang, C.; Yang, M.; Yu, Q., (2012). An analytical study on the resource recycling potentials of urban and rural domestic waste in China, Procedia Environ. Sci., 16: 25-33 (9 pages).

Yun, B. I. (2018). New higher order methods for solving nonlinear equations with multiple roots, PLoS ONE, 13(8): 1–13 (13 pages).

 

HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE

Gwada, B.; Ogendi, G.; Makindi, S.M.; Trott, S., (2019). Composition of plastic waste discarded by households and its management approaches.Global. J. Environ. Sci. Manage., 5(1): …, …


Letters to Editor


GJESM Journal welcomes letters to the editor for the post-publication discussions and corrections which allows debate post publication on its site, through the Letters to Editor. Letters pertaining to manuscript published in GJESM should be sent to the editorial office of GJESM within three months of either online publication or before printed publication, except for critiques of original research. Following points are to be considering before sending the letters (comments) to the editor.

[1] Letters that include statements of statistics, facts, research, or theories should include appropriate references, although more than three are discouraged.
[2] Letters that are personal attacks on an author rather than thoughtful criticism of the author’s ideas will not be considered for publication.
[3] Letters can be no more than 300 words in length.
[4] Letter writers should include a statement at the beginning of the letter stating that it is being submitted either for publication or not.
[5] Anonymous letters will not be considered.
[6] Letter writers must include their city and state of residence or work.
[7] Letters will be edited for clarity and length.

CAPTCHA Image