A. Charkhestani; D. Yousefi Kebria
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although the characteristics food waste have been well studied, some of the problems associated with result reporting have not been addressed. The related data are usually reported by referring to the global statistics, using the empirical models, and performing the laboratory ...
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although the characteristics food waste have been well studied, some of the problems associated with result reporting have not been addressed. The related data are usually reported by referring to the global statistics, using the empirical models, and performing the laboratory analysis. The aims of the current study were to analyze the municipal food waste characteristics (including physical, proximate, ultimate and heating value analysis), monitor the differences among the laboratory methods, and highlight the significant differences among the food waste characteristics more accurately.METHODS: Sampling was performed weekly at a disposal site located in Sari, Mazandaran, Iran. Food waste was extracted from the municipal solid waste samples. Moisture content, pH, organic matter, ash content, organic carbon, carbon to nitrogen ratio, low heating value and chemical equation of the waste were determined and compared by statistical indices.FINDINGS: The results showed no significant difference between proximate analysis and global statistics for sampling including organic matter and moisture content. In ultimate analysis, statistical investigation of the laboratory results showed that Walkley and black, Kjeldahl, and dry ashing/ion chromatography methods had more accuracy compared to determination by elemental analyzer which puts direct impact on extracted chemical equation. In addition, heating value investigation by empirical models based on proximate analysis (13.6 MJ/kg) was closer to the bomb calorimeter results (13.4 MJ/kg) in average. However, the models developed based on ultimate analysis, including Dulong, Steuer, and Scheurer-Kestner, had a lower accuracy (with higher heating value of 1.4 to 5 MJ/kg). Surveying the reliable sources highlighted the gap in extracted chemical equation and heating value of the food waste with real amount. These findings provided appropriate information about solid waste management and characterization.CONCLUSION: Investigation of the gap among laboratory methods revealed that determination method was a key factor in accurate characterization of food waste. Thus, without using the most accurate laboratory methods, the implementation of waste management plans would face major problems.
K.O. Demirarslan; B.Y. Çelik
In the current study, the solid waste characterisation that belongs to Artvin city centre, which is located in East Black Sea Region of Turkey, were searched. The study has the feature of being the first study for the country of Artvin in terms of study. The field of study is composed of 7 neighborhoods ...
In the current study, the solid waste characterisation that belongs to Artvin city centre, which is located in East Black Sea Region of Turkey, were searched. The study has the feature of being the first study for the country of Artvin in terms of study. The field of study is composed of 7 neighborhoods and those can be separated into 3 groups as low, middle and high level of income. In this study, 11 kind of waste were examined, which are organic, paper, plastic, glass, metal, ash, electronic, textile, garden waste, hazardous and others. The effect of seasons on the amount of waste was examined; also, the relationship between the amount of waste and the level of income was also examined by using the two-way ANOVA analysis. Furthermore, all ratios of wastes that are located in Artvin city centre were searched. According to that, the waste ratios, occurs in one year, of all neighborhoods in the Artvin city centre are found as 61.06% organic, 10.28% paper, 9% plastic, 3.20% glass, 2.29% metal, 3.87% ash, 0.037% electronic, 1.58% textile, 1.35% garden waste, 0.51 % hazardous and 7.23% others. Those obtained values were compared with other similar studies in the literature. Moreover, for collecting recyclable wastes for the city centre 3 different methods are proposed named as methods collection from households, collection from buildings and collection from neighborhoods. These methods have been studied economically and the collection from buildings method is the most appropriate among these three methods.