Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
The effect of compost and humic acid in mobility and concentration of cadmium and chromium in contaminated soil were investigated. Experiment was carried out with three levels of soil cadmium and chromium and two organic matters (compost and humic acid). The study was performed in a randomized complete block design with 3 replicates. Results indicated that application of organic substances enhanced movement of cadmium and chromium in soil column. Humic acid is more effective than compost on the mobility of cadmium and chromium in soil. Mobility of cadmium and chromium in the lower depths of soil column were increased. Cadmium and chromium concentration in shoots and roots enhanced due to increasing those concentration in soil and application of organic substances. Increase in cadmium in shoots can be attributed to the high mobility of this element in maize plant. Maize root chromium concentration was greater than shoot chromium concentration. Humic acid was more effective than compost as cadmium and chromium concentration in root and shoot was concerned. Low mobility of chromium in plant and accumulation of chromium in roots can be reasons of decreasing of chromium concentration in shoot of plant and its bioaccumulation.
Enhancement of Cd and Cr concentration in shoots and roots of maize plant due to increasing those concentration in soil and application of organic substances.
Enhancement of movement of Cd and Cr in soil column by application of organic substances.
Low mobility of Cr in plant and accumulation of Cr in roots
Incensement of mobility of heavy metals in the lower soil depths
Angelova, V.R.; Akova, V.I.; Artinova, N.S.; Ivanov, K.I., (2013). The effect of organic amendments on soil chemical characteristics. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci.,19: 958-971. (12 pages)
Balabanova, B.; Stafilov, T.; Baceva, K., (2015). Bioavailability and bioaccumulation characterization of essential and heavy metals contents in R. acetosa, S. oleracea and U. dioica from copper polluted and referent areas. J. Environ. Health Sci. Eng., 13: 21-29. (8 pages)
Barancikova, G.; Makovnikova, J., (2003). The influence of humic acid quality on the sorption and mobility of heavy metals. Plant, Soil Environ., 49: 565–571 (11 pages).
Ben Achiba, W.; Gabteni, N.; Lakhdar, A.; Du Laing, G.; Verloo, M.; Jedidi, N.; Gallali, T., (2009). Effects of 5-year application of municipal solid waste compost on the distribution and mobility of heavy metals in a Tunisian calcareous soil Agriculture. Ecosyst. Environ. 130: 156–163 (7 pages).
Boner, K.; Pohl, B., (2010). The Determination of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb in a Concentrated CaCl2/NaCl Solution by AAS. Agilent Technologies.
Chapman, H.D.; Pratt, P.F., (1961). Methods of analysis for soils, plants and waters. University of California, Berkeley.
Fischerova, Z.; Szakova, J.; Pavlíkova, D.; Tlustos, P., (2005). The application of diffusive gradient technique (DGT) for assessment of changes in Cd, Pb, and Zn mobility in rhizosphere. Plant Soil Environ. 51: 532–538 (6 pages).
Gabrijel, O.; Davor, R.; Zed, R.; Marija, R.; Monika, Z., (2009). Cadmium accumulation by muskmelon under stress in contaminated organic soil. Sci. Total Environ., 407: 2175-2182 (7 pages).
Haliru, M.; Ajibola, V.O.; Agbaji, E.B., (2009). Evaluation of the uptake and accumulation of metals by some commonly irrigated vegetables in soils treated with different concentration of these metals. J. App. Sci., 9:1573 – 1577 (4 pages).
Hernandez-Soriano, M.; Jose, C.; Jimenez-Lopez, C., (2012). Effects of soil water content and organic matter addition on the speciation and bioavailability of heavy metals. Sci. Total Environ., 423: 55–61 (6 pages).
Hoop, M.; Leeuwen, H.; Cleven, R., (1990).Chim Anal Acta. 191-232 (40 pages).
Jafarnghadi, A.; Sayyad, G.H.; Homei, M. (2010). Investigation of heavy metal values in soil of Khuzestan (Ahvaz) field. National Conference of Environmental Crises.
Janos, P.; Vavrova, J.; Lucie, H., (2010). Effects of inorganic and organic amendments on the mobility (leachability) of heavy metals in contaminated soil: A sequential extraction study. Geoderma 159: 335–341 (6 pages).
John, R.; Ahmad, P.; Gadgil, K.; Sharma, S., (2009). Heavy metal toxicity: Effect on plant growth, biochemical parameters and metal accumulation by Brassica juncea L. Intl. J. Plant Prod. 3:1735-1743 (8 pages).
Kabata, A.; Mukherjee, B.A., (2007). Trace Elements from Soil to Human. New York: Springer. 450p.
Kalantari, K.M.; Pirooz, P.S.; Nasibi, F., (2014). A physiological analysis of sunflower under chromium stress: Impact on plant growth, bioaccumulation and oxidative stress induction on sunflower (Helianthus annuus). J. Plant Biol., 11: 73-86 (13 pages).
Karbassi, A.R.; Pazoki, M., (2015). Environmental qualitative assessment of rivers sediments. Global J. Environ. Sci. Manage., 1(2): 109-116 (8 pages).
Karbassi, A.R.; Tajziehchi, S.; Afshar, S., (2015). An investigation on heavy metals in soils around oil field area. Global J. Environ. Sci. Manage., 1(4): 275-282 (8 pages).
Khan, A.G.; Kuek, C.; Chandhry, T.M.; Khoo, C.S.; Hayes, W.J., (2000). Role of plants, mycorrhizae and phytochelators in heavy metal contaminated land remediation, Chemosphere, 41: 197–207 (10 pages).
Kim, Y.J.; Kwon, Y.; Jeong, S., (2004). Combined effects of copper, cadmium, and lead upon Cucumis sativus growth and bioaccumulation. Sci. Total Environ. 326: 85–93 (8 pages).
Lesage, E.; Meers, E.; Vervaekle, P.; Lamsal, S.; Hopgood, M.; Tack, F.M.G.; Verloo, M.G., (2005). Enhanced phytoextraction: II. Effect of EDTA and citric acid on heavy metal uptake by Heliantus annus from a calcareous soil. Int. J. Phytoremed. 7: 143–152 (9 pages).
Marchiol, L.; Assolari, S.; Sacco, P.; Zerbi, G., (2004). Phytoextraction of heavy metals by canola (Brassica napus) and radish (Raphanus sativus) grown on multicontaminated soil. Environ. Pollut., 132: 21–27 (5 pages).
Meers, E.; Unamuno, V.; Vandegehuchte, M.; Vanbroekhoven, K.; Geebelen, W.; Samson, R.; Vangronsveld, J.; Diels, L.; Ruttens, A.; Laing, G.D.; Tack, F., (2005). Soil-solution speciation of Cd, as affected by soil characteristics in unpolluted and polluted soils. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 24: 499-509 (10 pages).
Mireles, A., (2004). Heavy metal accumulation in plants and soil irrigated with waste water from Mexico City. Nuc. Instr. Method Phys. Res., B. 220: 187-190 (3 pages).
Mohammad, J.K.; Muhammad, T.; Khalid, K., (2013). Effect of organic and inorganic amendments on the heavy metal content of soil and wheat crop irrigated with wastewater. Sarhad J. Agric. 29: 142-152 (9 pages).
Orrono, D.; Lavado, R., (2009). Heavy metal accumulation in Pelargonium hortorum: Effects on growth and development. ¥OTON: Revista Int. De Botanica Expert Int., 78: 75-84 (9 pages).
Ouni, Y.; Ghnaya, T.; Montemurro, C.; Abdelly, A.; Lakhdar, A., (2014). The role of humic substances in mitigating the harmful effects of soil salinity and improve plant productivity. Int. J. Plant Product., 8: 353-374 (21 pages).
Park, J.; Dane, L.; Periyasamy, P., (2011). Role of organic amendments on enhanced bioremediation of heavy metal (loid) contaminated soils. J. Hazard. Mater., 185: 549-574 (25 pages).
Park, S.; Kim, K.; Kang, D.; Yoon, H.; Sung, K., (2013). Effects of humic acid on heavy metal uptake by herbaceous plants in soils simultaneously contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons. Environ. Earth Sci., 68(8): 2375-2384 (10 pages).
Parsafar, N.; Marofi, S., (2014). Investigation of transfer coefficients of Cd, Zn, Cu and Pb from soil to potato under wastewater reuse. J. Water Soil Sci., 17(66): 199-209 (11 pages).
Pizzeghello, D., Francioso, O., Ertani, A., Muscolo, A., Nardi, S., (2013). Isopentenyladenosine and cytokinin-like activity of different humic substances. J. Geochem. Ex. 129: 70-75(5 pages).
Raymond, A.; Okieimen, E., (2011). Heavy metal in contaminated soils. International Scholarly Research Network ISRN Ecology.
Salati, S. Quadri G. Tambone F and Adani F. 2010. Fresh organic matter of municipal solid waste enhances phytoextraction of heavy metals from contaminated soil. Environ. Pollut. 158: 1899–1906 (7 pages).
Sanita, L.; Fossati, F.; Musetti, R.; Mikerezi, I.; Favali, M.A., (2010). Effects of hexavalent chromium on maize and cauliflower plants. J. Plant Nutr. 25:701-717 (16 pages).
Strobel, B.W.; Borggaard, O.K.; Hansen, H.C.B.; Andersen, M.K.; Aulund-rasmussen, K., (2005). Dissolved organic carbon and decreasing pH mobilize cadmium and copper in soil. Eur. J. Soil Sci., 56: 189–196 (7 pages).
Tingqiang, L.; Tao, Q.; Chengfeng, L.; Shohag, M.J.; Xiaoe, Y.; Sparks, D., (2013). Complexation with dissolved organic matter and mobility control of heavy metals in the rhizosphere of hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii. Environ. Pollut., 182: 248-255 (7 pages).
Topcuoglu, B., (2012). The influence of humic acids on the metal bioavailability and phytoextraction efficiency in long-term sludge applied soil. Conference on International Research on Food Security, Natural Resource Management and Rural Development. Tropentag, Gottingen, Germany.
Wojcik, M.; Vangronsveld, J.; Tukiendorf, A., (2005). Cadmium tolerance in Thlaspi caerulescens. I. Growth parameters, metal accumulation and phytochelatin synthesis in response to cadmium. Environ. Exp. Bot. 53: 151–161 (10 pages).
Wyszkowski, M.; Ziołkowska, A., (2013). Content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils polluted with petrol and diesel oil after remediation with plants and various substances. Plant, Soil Environ., 59: 287–294 (7 pages).
Zeng, F.; Shafaqat, A.; Zhang, H., (2011). The influence of pH and organic matter content in paddy soil on heavy metal availability and their uptake by rice plants. Environ. Pollut., 159: 84-91 (6pages).
Zhang, Y.; Yang, X.; Tian, S.; Guo, W.; Wang, J., (2013). The influence of humic acids on the accumulation of lead and cadmium in tobacco leaves grown in different soils. J. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr., 13: 43-53 (10 pages).
Article View: 750
PDF Download: 994
Letters to Editor
GJESM welcomes letters to the editor. Letters pertaining to manuscript published in GJESM should be sent to the editorial office of GJESM within three months of either online publication or before printed publication, except for critiques of original research. Following points are to be considering before sending the letters (comments) to the editor.
 Letters that include statements of statistics, facts, research, or theories should include appropriate references, although more than three are discouraged.
 Letters that are personal attacks on an author rather than thoughtful criticism of the author’s ideas will not be considered for publication.
 Letters can be no more than 300 words in length.
 Letter writers should include a statement at the beginning of the letter stating that it is being submitted either for publication or not.
 Anonymous letters will not be considered.
 Letter writers must include their city and state of residence or work.
 Letters will be edited for clarity and length.