1Department of Civil Engineering, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, Texas 78249, USA
2Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, Texas 78249, USA
There is no single standard technique or methodology to characterize the size, structure, number, and chemical composition of airborne carbon nanotubes. Existing analytical instruments and analytical techniques for evaluating nanoparticle concentrations cannot simultaneously provide morphology, state of agglomeration, surface area, mass, size distribution and chemical composition data critical to making occupational health assessments. This research utilized scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis to assess the morphology and mass of carbon nanotubes collected using various commercial sample filters. It illustrated carbon nanotube agglomeration, deposition and distribution in commonly used sample filter media. It also illustrated that a sufficient mass for carbon nanotube analysis by thermogravimetric analysis is uncommon under most current research and production uses of carbon nanotubes. Individual carbon nanotubes were found to readily agglomerate with diameters ranging from 1 – 63 µm. They were collected at the face of or within the filter. They were not evenly distributed across the face of the filters.
Ahmadi, A.; Beheshtian, J.; Hadipour, N., (2011). Interaction of NH3 with aluminum nitride nanotube: Electrostatic vs. covalent. Physica E: Low-dimensional Sys. Nanostructures 43(9): 1717-1719 (3 pages).
Beheshtian, J.; Baei, M,;Peyghan, A.; Bagheri, Z., (2012). Electronic sensor for sulfide dioxide based on AlN nanotubes: a computational study. J. Mol. Model. 18: 4745-4750 (6 pages).
Bernholc, J.; Roland, C.; Yakobson, B., (1997). Current opinion in solid state and materials science, Nanotubes 2(6): 706–715(10 pages).
Buzea, C.; Ivan. I.; Blandino. P.; Robbie, K., (2007). Nanomaterials and nanoparticles: Sources and toxicity. Biointerphases, 2, 4, MR17-MR172.
Che, J.; Cajin, T.; Goddard, W. (2000). Thermal conductivity of carbon nanotubes
Chen, Y.; Haddon, R.C.; Fang, S.; Rao, A.M.; Eklund, P. C.; Lee, W. H.; Dickey, E. C.; Grulke, E. A.; Pendergrass, J. C.; Chavan, A.; Haley B. E.; Smalley, R.E., (1998). Chemical attachment of organic functional groups to single-walled carbon nanotube material. J. Mater. Res., 13(9): 2423-2431 (9 pages).
Cheng, K.L., (2006). The negative charge of nanoparticles. Microchem. J., 82: 119-120 (2 pages).
Contal, P.; Simao, J.; Thomas, D.; Frising, D.; Callé, S.; Appert-Collin, J.; Bémer, D., (2005). Clogging of fibre filters by submicron droplets. Phenomena and influence ofoperating conditions. J. Aerosol Sci., 35(2): 263-278 (16 pages).
Curtzwiler, C., (2008). Characterization and compression properties of injection molded carbon Nanotube Composites California Polytechnic State University.
Elcock, D., (2007). Potential impacts of nanotechnology on energy transmission applications and needs, Environmental Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory.
Elmøe, T.; Tricoli, A.; Grunwaldt, J.; Pratsinis, S., (2009). Filtration of nanoparticles: Evolution of cake structure and pressure-drop. J. Aerosol Sci., 40: 965–981 (34 pages).
Fairbrother, D.H.; Smith, B. A.; Wnuk, J. D.; Wepasnick, K.; Ball, W. P.; Cho, H.; Bangash, F. K., (2008). Surface oxides on carbon nonotubes (CNTs): Effects on CNT stability and sorptionproperties in aquatic environments. In nanoscience and nanotechnology: Environmental and health impacts. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New Jersey.
Grzelczak, M.; Vermant, J.; Eric M.; Furst, E.; Liz-Marzan, L., (2010). Directed self-assembly of nanoparticles. ACS Nano., 4(7): 3591-3605 (15 pages)..
Han, J.H.; Lee, E.J.; Lee, J.H.; So, K.P.; Lee, Y.H..; Bae, G.N.; Lee, S.B.; Ji, J.H.; Cho, M.H.; Yu, I.J., (2008). Monitoring multiwalled carbon nanotube exposure in carbon nanotube research facility. Inhalation Toxicol., 20(8): 741-749 (9 pages).
Lam, Chiu-Wing; James, John T.; McCluskey, R.; Hunter, Robert, L., (2004). Pulmonary toxicity ofsingle-wall carbon nanotubes inmice 7 and 90 days after intratracheal instillation. Toxicol. Sci., 77(1): 126-134 (9 pages).
Lam, C.; Jams, J.; McCluskey, R.; Arepalli, S.; Hunter, R., (2006). A review of carbon nanotube toxicity and assessment of potential occupational and environmental health risks. Critical Rev. Toxicol., 6:189–217 (29 pages).
Lee, K.W., Liu, B.Y.H. (1982) Theoretical study of aerosol filtration in fibrous filters [J]. Aerosol Sci. Tech. 1(2): 147-161(15 pages).
NIOSH, (1999).Manual of analytical methods, elemental carbon (diesel particulate), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Publication No. 5040. Cincinnati.
NIOSH, (2004). Nanotechnology Workplace Safety and Health. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Publication Cincinnati.
NIOSH, (2005). Approaches to safe nanotechnology: An information exchange with National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Publication. Cincinnati.
NIOSH, (2013).Current intelligence bulletin, occupational exposures to carbon nanotubes and nanofibers. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Publication Publication No. 2013-145. Cincinnati.
Oswald, S.; E. Flahaut, E.; Ye, H.; Gogotsi, Y., (2005). Chem. Phys. Lett. 402(4): 422- 427 (6 pages).
Sass, J.; Musu, T.; Burns, K.; Illuminato, I., (2008). Nanomaterials: brief review of policy frameworks in the US and Europe and recommendations from an occupational and environmental perspective. Eur. J.Oncol., 13:211-218 (8 pages).
Seaton, A.; Tran, L.; Aitken, R.; Donaldson, K., (2009). Nanoparticles, human health hazard and regulation. J. R. Soc Interface., 239: 224-232 (9 pages).
Terrones, M., (2003).Science and technology of the twenty-first century: Synthesis, propertiesand applications of carbon nanotubes. Annu. Rev. Mater.Res. 33: 419–501 (83 pages).
Thomas, D.; Penicot, P.; Contal, P.; D. Leclerc. D.; Vendel, J., (2001). Clogging of fibrous filters by solid aerosol particles Experimental and modeling study. Chem. Eng. Sci., 56 (11): 3549-3561 (13 pages).
Van Zant, Peter, (2000). Mircochip fabrication – A practical guide to semiconductor processing. 4th. edition. McGraw-Hill: New York.
Article View: 2,203
PDF Download: 1,534
Letters to Editor
GJESM welcomes letters to the editor. Letters pertaining to manuscript published in GJESM should be sent to the editorial office of GJESM within three months of either online publication or before printed publication, except for critiques of original research. Following points are to be considering before sending the letters (comments) to the editor.
 Letters that include statements of statistics, facts, research, or theories should include appropriate references, although more than three are discouraged.
 Letters that are personal attacks on an author rather than thoughtful criticism of the author’s ideas will not be considered for publication.
 Letters can be no more than 300 words in length.
 Letter writers should include a statement at the beginning of the letter stating that it is being submitted either for publication or not.
 Anonymous letters will not be considered.
 Letter writers must include their city and state of residence or work.
 Letters will be edited for clarity and length.